# A Simple Explanation of Blockchain – Perfectly Plain

• A Simple Explanation of Blockchain – Perfectly Plain
• Blockchain Explanation. What is Blockchain technology
• What Is Blockchain? The Bitcoin Technology Explained for
• What is Blockchain? (a simple explanation) | by Zebpay
• A simple explanation of how blockchain works | by Paul
##### StableCoin

This subreddit is dedicated to inform and discuss the revolutionary cryptocurrency Stablecoin.

##### Bitcoin Resources in Spanish

Hello I am trying to get a coworker of mine into Bitcoin, I only nabahed to explain the bare bones of it but would like deeper info. he seems interested in it but since his main language is Spanish is there any resources like articles, YouTube, books, etc., about Bitcoin and all the ins and outs of how it works, the Block Chain information, and what is the lightning network and how it works. The information about exchanges is also good because my explanation arent great when i was giving info and resources would be cool. Thank you guys.

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What are the impediment of Bitcoin as a Transaction Currency?
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While it was made as a methods for doing electronic, distributed exchanges, the idea isn't versatile at this stage. It relies a great deal upon confirmation of-work, which happens to be a strategy used to affirm that an arrangement came to fruition.
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The benefit of using this technique is that proprietors on the Bitcoin framework don't need to know or even have faith in each other. Neither do they rely on a last gathering as the fundamental force that has an extreme state over an exchange? The procedure's advantages are accessible for speed, in any case. The Bitcoin framework can just oversee seven exchanges for every second.
bitcoin customer care number ⑧③③~⑤④⓪~⓪ ⑨①⓪
Considerably more unequivocally, every ten mins, a clump of exchanges (alluded to for discourage of activities, along these lines, "square" chain) is affirmed. The issue, in any case, is the bunch is sufficiently enormous to fit a great deal of exchanges. In the event that, for example, you head over Starbucks, and you make a purchase with Bitcoin, in the most ideal situation, your espresso purchase is put into the following cluster. It's checked under ten minutes if Starbucks is sufficient just to remember one confirmation (there are chances associated with just tolerating one affirmation, however we won't get into that in this occurrence).
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On the other side, if there's a broad rundown of exchanges in front of you, your coffee exchange probably won't get by into that next group. What winds up happening would be that your buy gets lined set up for another shipment. The line which the exchange is persistently holding up in is known as the mempool. Presently you've to hold up an extra ten minutes after the earlier cluster of exchanges is finished; i.e., you've to wait for as much as twenty minutes. And still, at the end of the day, there's just no assurance. Maybe, at this point, you discover the point and unquestionably will see unequivocally how troubling it will become to buy a mug of coffee with Bitcoin.
bitcoin customer care number ⑧③③~⑤④⓪~⓪ ⑨①⓪
On the off chance that you exchange on each brought together trade, in spite of the fact that, you could be imagining that Bitcoin speeds are close moment that is a deception. On brought together trades, all the bitcoin is kept in one area. The Bitcoin of yours and mine are aggregate. The trade deals with a database that gives and takes away a history on the Bitcoin you own, subject to each exchange. That is the explanation. Bitcoin maximalists contend that you don't genuinely have your Bitcoin except if it is in your wallet; on the off chance that it lays on a trade, you're represented by chance. The exchange may vanish one day with the entirety of your coins, or perhaps only level out decline to furnish you with the coins you purchased.
bitcoin customer care number ⑧③③~⑤④⓪~⓪ ⑨①⓪
As a retail establishment of worth, Bitcoin has a few great properties. In the first place, it could be had and effectively put away. In contrast to gold, Bitcoin might be put away for a USB stick, regardless of the amount you have. Gold occupies genuine physical room, and holding extensive measures of it can get obvious. Bitcoin likewise offers a fixed cost. Altogether, there'll be close to twenty-one million Bitcoin promptly accessible to the world.
How Are BITCOIN TRANSACTIONS Processed?
The Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain supports an open record that will keep a background marked by the majority of the exchanges that occurred. Each hub on the framework has a total message of the bookkeeping. Mining will be where extra exchanges between individuals are checked and placed into the Bitcoin (BSV) open record and the way the blockchain is made sure about. Along these lines, blockchain mining will be where fresh out of the box new Bitcoin (BSV) coins are printed and furthermore brought into the current flowing flexibly.
How Does Mining Work?
Mining is a fundamental segment that empowers the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain to work being a decentralized shared framework with zero outsider focal position. In expansive phrasing, exchanges become brought into the blockchain by hubs when one specific social gathering coordinates a Bitcoin to another. Excavators run a particular programming bundle to record the squares upon the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain.
Hubs are the establishment of the blockchain. A hub is a digger that joins towards the Bitcoin (BSV) framework to reveal obstructs in addition to process exchanges. Hubs talk with each other by transmitting data inside the conveyed framework with the Bitcoin (BSV) distributed procedure. All system hubs get the arrangements at that point affirm the legitimacy of theirs.
What occurs after?
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An excavator gathers exchanges from the brain pool, independently hashes them, presently amasses them inside an impede. After the exchanges get hashed, the hashes are organized straight into a Merkle Tree (or perhaps a hash tree).
A Merkle Tree is made by orchestrating the distinctive exchange hashes into sets at that point hashing them by and by. The yield is organized into sets and hashed again then over and again, until "the top piece of the tree" is secured. The zenith of the tree is known as a root hash or perhaps Merkle root. Its one hash that presents the entirety of the earlier blends utilized in its age.
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The square's coming up next: is controlled by header
• Root Hash
• Hash of the earlier square
• Timestamp
• Client programming variant
• Target
• An irregular sum alluded to as a nonce Hashing the deter header prompts the square hash. The square hash will serve when the identifier of a recently produced square.
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Mining a square is troublesome in light of the fact that the SHA 256 hash of a square's header ought to be not exactly or maybe equivalent to the objective with the square to be recognized by the framework. Diggers consistently hash the square header in, by emphasizing through the nonce until one inside the framework excavator makes a legitimate block hash.
At the point when found, the originator hub is going to communicate the square on the Bitcoin people group. Different hubs look at to discover if the hash is certifiable and, hence, tack the square into a duplicate of theirs of the blockchain. Therefore, they've up record after that begin dealing with mining another square.
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Blockchain Rewards
The underlying advance in blockchain mining is including a coinbase exchange, e.g., an unmistakable sort of bitcoin exchange that can simply be created by a digger. This exchange doesn't have any sources of info, and there's an individual comprised of each fresh out of the plastic new impede mined on the Bitcoin (BSV) people group. Any exchange and square rewards expenses got together by the digger are presented this exchange as pay for finding the new square.
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What are the impediment of Bitcoin as a Transaction Currency?
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While it was made as a methods for doing electronic, distributed exchanges, the idea isn't versatile at this stage. It relies a great deal upon confirmation of-work, which happens to be a strategy used to affirm that an arrangement came to fruition.
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The benefit of using this technique is that proprietors on the Bitcoin framework don't need to know or even have faith in each other. Neither do they rely on a last gathering as the fundamental force that has an extreme state over an exchange? The procedure's advantages are accessible for speed, in any case. The Bitcoin framework can just oversee seven exchanges for every second.
Considerably more unequivocally, every ten mins, a clump of exchanges (alluded to for discourage of activities, along these lines, "square" chain) is affirmed. The issue, in any case, is the bunch is sufficiently enormous to fit a great deal of exchanges. In the event that, for example, you head over Starbucks, and you make a purchase with Bitcoin, in the most ideal situation, your espresso purchase is put into the following cluster. It's checked under ten minutes if Starbucks is sufficient just to remember one confirmation (there are chances associated with just tolerating one affirmation, however we won't get into that in this occurrence).
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On the other side, if there's a broad rundown of exchanges in front of you, your coffee exchange probably won't get by into that next group. What winds up happening would be that your buy gets lined set up for another shipment. The line which the exchange is persistently holding up in is known as the mempool. Presently you've to hold up an extra ten minutes after the earlier cluster of exchanges is finished; i.e., you've to wait for as much as twenty minutes. And still, at the end of the day, there's just no assurance. Maybe, at this point, you discover the point and unquestionably will see unequivocally how troubling it will become to buy a mug of coffee with Bitcoin.
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On the off chance that you exchange on each brought together trade, in spite of the fact that, you could be imagining that Bitcoin speeds are close moment that is a deception. On brought together trades, all the bitcoin is kept in one area. The Bitcoin of yours and mine are aggregate. The trade deals with a database that gives and takes away a history on the Bitcoin you own, subject to each exchange. That is the explanation. Bitcoin maximalists contend that you don't genuinely have your Bitcoin except if it is in your wallet; on the off chance that it lays on a trade, you're represented by chance. The exchange may vanish one day with the entirety of your coins, or perhaps only level out decline to furnish you with the coins you purchased.
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As a retail establishment of worth, Bitcoin has a few great properties. In the first place, it could be had and effectively put away. In contrast to gold, Bitcoin might be put away for a USB stick, regardless of the amount you have. Gold occupies genuine physical room, and holding extensive measures of it can get obvious. Bitcoin likewise offers a fixed cost. Altogether, there'll be close to twenty-one million Bitcoin promptly accessible to the world.
How Are BITCOIN TRANSACTIONS Processed?
The Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain supports an open record that will keep a background marked by the majority of the exchanges that occurred. Each hub on the framework has a total message of the bookkeeping. Mining will be where extra exchanges between individuals are checked and placed into the Bitcoin (BSV) open record and the way the blockchain is made sure about. Along these lines, blockchain mining will be where fresh out of the box new Bitcoin (BSV) coins are printed and furthermore brought into the current flowing flexibly.
How Does Mining Work?
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Mining is a fundamental segment that empowers the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain to work being a decentralized shared framework with zero outsider focal position. In expansive phrasing, exchanges become brought into the blockchain by hubs when one specific social gathering coordinates a Bitcoin to another. Excavators run a particular programming bundle to record the squares upon the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain.
Hubs are the establishment of the blockchain. A hub is a digger that joins towards the Bitcoin (BSV) framework to reveal obstructs in addition to process exchanges. Hubs talk with each other by transmitting data inside the conveyed framework with the Bitcoin (BSV) distributed procedure. All system hubs get the arrangements at that point affirm the legitimacy of theirs.
What occurs after?
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An excavator gathers exchanges from the brain pool, independently hashes them, presently amasses them inside an impede. After the exchanges get hashed, the hashes are organized straight into a Merkle Tree (or perhaps a hash tree).
A Merkle Tree is made by orchestrating the distinctive exchange hashes into sets at that point hashing them by and by. The yield is organized into sets and hashed again then over and again, until "the top piece of the tree" is secured. The zenith of the tree is known as a root hash or perhaps Merkle root. Its one hash that presents the entirety of the earlier blends utilized in its age.
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The square's coming up next: is controlled by header
• Root Hash
• Hash of the earlier square
• Timestamp
• Client programming variant
• Target
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• An irregular sum alluded to as a nonce Hashing the deter header prompts the square hash. The square hash will serve when the identifier of a recently produced square.
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Mining a square is troublesome in light of the fact that the SHA 256 hash of a square's header ought to be not exactly or maybe equivalent to the objective with the square to be recognized by the framework. Diggers consistently hash the square header in, by emphasizing through the nonce until one inside the framework excavator makes a legitimate block hash.
At the point when found, the originator hub is going to communicate the square on the Bitcoin people group. Different hubs look at to discover if the hash is certifiable and, hence, tack the square into a duplicate of theirs of the blockchain. Therefore, they've up record after that begin dealing with mining another square.
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Blockchain Rewards
The underlying advance in blockchain mining is including a coinbase exchange, e.g., an unmistakable sort of bitcoin exchange that can simply be created by a digger. This exchange doesn't have any sources of info, and there's an individual comprised of each fresh out of the plastic new impede mined on the Bitcoin (BSV) people group. Any exchange and square rewards expenses got together by the digger are presented this exchange as pay for finding the new square.
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What are the impediment of Bitcoin as a Transaction Currency?
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While it was made as a methods for doing electronic, distributed exchanges, the idea isn't versatile at this stage. It relies a great deal upon confirmation of-work, which happens to be a strategy used to affirm that an arrangement came to fruition.
bitcoin support number !!⑧③③!!⑤④⓪!!⓪⑨①⓪!!
The benefit of using this technique is that proprietors on the Bitcoin framework don't need to know or even have faith in each other. Neither do they rely on a last gathering as the fundamental force that has an extreme state over an exchange? The procedure's advantages are accessible for speed, in any case. The Bitcoin framework can just oversee seven exchanges for every second.
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Considerably more unequivocally, every ten mins, a clump of exchanges (alluded to for discourage of activities, along these lines, "square" chain) is affirmed. The issue, in any case, is the bunch is sufficiently enormous to fit a great deal of exchanges. In the event that, for example, you head over Starbucks, and you make a purchase with Bitcoin, in the most ideal situation, your espresso purchase is put into the following cluster. It's checked under ten minutes if Starbucks is sufficient just to remember one confirmation (there are chances associated with just tolerating one affirmation, however we won't get into that in this occurrence).
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On the other side, if there's a broad rundown of exchanges in front of you, your coffee exchange probably won't get by into that next group. What winds up happening would be that your buy gets lined set up for another shipment. The line which the exchange is persistently holding up in is known as the mempool. Presently you've to hold up an extra ten minutes after the earlier cluster of exchanges is finished; i.e., you've to wait for as much as twenty minutes. And still, at the end of the day, there's just no assurance. Maybe, at this point, you discover the point and unquestionably will see unequivocally how troubling it will become to buy a mug of coffee with Bitcoin.
bitcoin support number !!⑧③③!!⑤④⓪!!⓪⑨①⓪!!
On the off chance that you exchange on each brought together trade, in spite of the fact that, you could be imagining that Bitcoin speeds are close moment that is a deception. On brought together trades, all the bitcoin is kept in one area. The Bitcoin of yours and mine are aggregate. The trade deals with a database that gives and takes away a history on the Bitcoin you own, subject to each exchange. That is the explanation. Bitcoin maximalists contend that you don't genuinely have your Bitcoin except if it is in your wallet; on the off chance that it lays on a trade, you're represented by chance. The exchange may vanish one day with the entirety of your coins, or perhaps only level out decline to furnish you with the coins you purchased.
bitcoin support number !!⑧③③!!⑤④⓪!!⓪⑨①⓪!!
As a retail establishment of worth, Bitcoin has a few great properties. In the first place, it could be had and effectively put away. In contrast to gold, Bitcoin might be put away for a USB stick, regardless of the amount you have. Gold occupies genuine physical room, and holding extensive measures of it can get obvious. Bitcoin likewise offers a fixed cost. Altogether, there'll be close to twenty-one million Bitcoin promptly accessible to the world.
How Are BITCOIN TRANSACTIONS Processed?
The Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain supports an open record that will keep a background marked by the majority of the exchanges that occurred. Each hub on the framework has a total message of the bookkeeping. Mining will be where extra exchanges between individuals are checked and placed into the Bitcoin (BSV) open record and the way the blockchain is made sure about. Along these lines, blockchain mining will be where fresh out of the box new Bitcoin (BSV) coins are printed and furthermore brought into the current flowing flexibly.
How Does Mining Work?
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Mining is a fundamental segment that empowers the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain to work being a decentralized shared framework with zero outsider focal position. In expansive phrasing, exchanges become brought into the blockchain by hubs when one specific social gathering coordinates a Bitcoin to another. Excavators run a particular programming bundle to record the squares upon the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain.
Hubs are the establishment of the blockchain. A hub is a digger that joins towards the Bitcoin (BSV) framework to reveal obstructs in addition to process exchanges. Hubs talk with each other by transmitting data inside the conveyed framework with the Bitcoin (BSV) distributed procedure. All system hubs get the arrangements at that point affirm the legitimacy of theirs.
What occurs after?
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An excavator gathers exchanges from the brain pool, independently hashes them, presently amasses them inside an impede. After the exchanges get hashed, the hashes are organized straight into a Merkle Tree (or perhaps a hash tree).
A Merkle Tree is made by orchestrating the distinctive exchange hashes into sets at that point hashing them by and by. The yield is organized into sets and hashed again then over and again, until "the top piece of the tree" is secured. The zenith of the tree is known as a root hash or perhaps Merkle root. Its one hash that presents the entirety of the earlier blends utilized in its age.
bitcoin support number !!⑧③③!!⑤④⓪!!⓪⑨①⓪!!
The square's coming up next: is controlled by header
• Root Hash
• Hash of the earlier square
• Timestamp
• Client programming variant
• Target
• An irregular sum alluded to as a nonce Hashing the deter header prompts the square hash. The square hash will serve when the identifier of a recently produced square.
Mining a square is troublesome in light of the fact that the SHA 256 hash of a square's header ought to be not exactly or maybe equivalent to the objective with the square to be recognized by the framework. Diggers consistently hash the square header in, by emphasizing through the nonce until one inside the framework excavator makes a legitimate block hash.
At the point when found, the originator hub is going to communicate the square on the Bitcoin people group. Different hubs look at to discover if the hash is certifiable and, hence, tack the square into a duplicate of theirs of the blockchain. Therefore, they've up record after that begin dealing with mining another square.
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Blockchain Rewards
The underlying advance in blockchain mining is including a coinbase exchange, e.g., an unmistakable sort of bitcoin exchange that can simply be created by a digger. This exchange doesn't have any sources of info, and there's an individual comprised of each fresh out of the plastic new impede mined on the Bitcoin (BSV) people group. Any exchange and square rewards expenses got together by the digger are presented this exchange as pay for finding the new square.
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While it was made as a methods for doing electronic, distributed exchanges, the idea isn't versatile at this stage. It relies a great deal upon confirmation of-work, which happens to be a strategy used to affirm that an arrangement came to fruition.
The benefit of using this technique is that proprietors on the Bitcoin framework don't need to know or even have faith in each other. Neither do they rely on a last gathering as the fundamental force that has an extreme state over an exchange? The procedure's advantages are accessible for speed, in any case. The Bitcoin framework can just oversee seven exchanges for every second.
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Considerably more unequivocally, every ten mins, a clump of exchanges (alluded to for discourage of activities, along these lines, "square" chain) is affirmed. The issue, in any case, is the bunch is sufficiently enormous to fit a great deal of exchanges. In the event that, for example, you head over Starbucks, and you make a purchase with Bitcoin, in the most ideal situation, your espresso purchase is put into the following cluster. It's checked under ten minutes if Starbucks is sufficient just to remember one confirmation (there are chances associated with just tolerating one affirmation, however we won't get into that in this occurrence).
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On the other side, if there's a broad rundown of exchanges in front of you, your coffee exchange probably won't get by into that next group. What winds up happening would be that your buy gets lined set up for another shipment. The line which the exchange is persistently holding up in is known as the mempool. Presently you've to hold up an extra ten minutes after the earlier cluster of exchanges is finished; i.e., you've to wait for as much as twenty minutes. And still, at the end of the day, there's just no assurance. Maybe, at this point, you discover the point and unquestionably will see unequivocally how troubling it will become to buy a mug of coffee with Bitcoin.
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On the off chance that you exchange on each brought together trade, in spite of the fact that, you could be imagining that Bitcoin speeds are close moment that is a deception. On brought together trades, all the bitcoin is kept in one area. The Bitcoin of yours and mine are aggregate. The trade deals with a database that gives and takes away a history on the Bitcoin you own, subject to each exchange. That is the explanation. Bitcoin maximalists contend that you don't genuinely have your Bitcoin except if it is in your wallet; on the off chance that it lays on a trade, you're represented by chance. The exchange may vanish one day with the entirety of your coins, or perhaps only level out decline to furnish you with the coins you purchased.
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As a retail establishment of worth, Bitcoin has a few great properties. In the first place, it could be had and effectively put away. In contrast to gold, Bitcoin might be put away for a USB stick, regardless of the amount you have. Gold occupies genuine physical room, and holding extensive measures of it can get obvious. Bitcoin likewise offers a fixed cost. Altogether, there'll be close to twenty-one million Bitcoin promptly accessible to the world.
How Are BITCOIN TRANSACTIONS Processed?
The Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain supports an open record that will keep a background marked by the majority of the exchanges that occurred. Each hub on the framework has a total message of the bookkeeping. Mining will be where extra exchanges between individuals are checked and placed into the Bitcoin (BSV) open record and the way the blockchain is made sure about. Along these lines, blockchain mining will be where fresh out of the box new Bitcoin (BSV) coins are printed and furthermore brought into the current flowing flexibly.
How Does Mining Work?
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Mining is a fundamental segment that empowers the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain to work being a decentralized shared framework with zero outsider focal position. In expansive phrasing, exchanges become brought into the blockchain by hubs when one specific social gathering coordinates a Bitcoin to another. Excavators run a particular programming bundle to record the squares upon the Bitcoin (BSV) blockchain.
Hubs are the establishment of the blockchain. A hub is a digger that joins towards the Bitcoin (BSV) framework to reveal obstructs in addition to process exchanges. Hubs talk with each other by transmitting data inside the conveyed framework with the Bitcoin (BSV) distributed procedure. All system hubs get the arrangements at that point affirm the legitimacy of theirs.
What occurs after?
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An excavator gathers exchanges from the brain pool, independently hashes them, presently amasses them inside an impede. After the exchanges get hashed, the hashes are organized straight into a Merkle Tree (or perhaps a hash tree).
A Merkle Tree is made by orchestrating the distinctive exchange hashes into sets at that point hashing them by and by. The yield is organized into sets and hashed again then over and again, until "the top piece of the tree" is secured. The zenith of the tree is known as a root hash or perhaps Merkle root. Its one hash that presents the entirety of the earlier blends utilized in its age.
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The square's coming up next: is controlled by header
• Root Hash
• Hash of the earlier square
• Timestamp
• Client programming variant
• Target
• An irregular sum alluded to as a nonce Hashing the deter header prompts the square hash. The square hash will serve when the identifier of a recently produced square.
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Mining a square is troublesome in light of the fact that the SHA 256 hash of a square's header ought to be not exactly or maybe equivalent to the objective with the square to be recognized by the framework. Diggers consistently hash the square header in, by emphasizing through the nonce until one inside the framework excavator makes a legitimate block hash.
At the point when found, the originator hub is going to communicate the square on the Bitcoin people group. Different hubs look at to discover if the hash is certifiable and, hence, tack the square into a duplicate of theirs of the blockchain. Therefore, they've up record after that begin dealing with mining another square.
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Blockchain Rewards
The underlying advance in blockchain mining is including a coinbase exchange, e.g., an unmistakable sort of bitcoin exchange that can simply be created by a digger. This exchange doesn't have any sources of info, and there's an individual comprised of each fresh out of the plastic new impede mined on the Bitcoin (BSV) people group. Any exchange and square rewards expenses got together by the digger are presented this exchange as pay for finding the new square.
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Bitcoin support number.
Bitcoin technical support number.
Bitcoin helpline number.
Bitcoin toll free number.
Bitcoin customer care number.
Bitcoin customer service.
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##### Questions Regarding BTC Mining

I have been wondering about some of the details related to bitcoin mining bit couldn't find an answer, I would bet the answer can be found was I capable of looking up the mining algorithms but I'm not that savvy (not yet at least) so here it goes.
I understand that during mining, the miners take the hash calculated from a given block then appends a nonce to it and calculate SHA256 for the whole expression, if the hash value is larger than the limit set by mining difficulty, the miner must attempt again the SHA256 calculation again by appending a different nonce and repeat until a hash smaller than the limit is found.
What I wanted to ask is the following:
1) Is my understanding above correct? If not then please disregard the below questions since they would be garbage most likely (correcting the fault lines in my understanding would more than enough).
2) How are these nonces to be appended chosen? Are they chosen randomly at every attempt or changed sequentially by adding 1 for example?
3) Does the bitcoin blockchain enforces the use of a specific algorithm for generating nonces or is it left to the miners to concoct their own algorithms as they see fit? (If enforced by the bitcoin block chain, I'd appreciate an explanation why)
4) If the choice is left to miners to generate nonces as they see fit, what is the best approach to generating these nonces available?
5) In a mining pools where many ASICs are hashing together, is there any coordination at the pool or at least at individual ASIC miner level to ensure no two ASIC chips are calculating the hash for the same nonce while trying to find the block? If not, what are the difficulties preventing such an implementation?
Thanks in advance and if there are any useful resources addressing these questions please share them especially ones describing the mining algorithm generating nonces.

##### My top 5 (and more) arguments against the mining tax as implemented in ABC 0.21.0

These are mine, but I'd like to hear yours in the comments!
1. Corrupting influence. Mixing monetary policy (money supply regulation, in Bitcoin: coin creation) and fiscal policy (roughly: government spending and taxing) is what central banks already do, and we know the results. Bitcoin was not designed to deliver such a mix - the newly created coin was, up to now, fully owned by the miner creating the block, and matures after a certain time when it can be spent. Miners can voluntary spend their coinbase outputs to other parties already. In this way fiscal decisions are decentralized as much possible - meaning every miner / pool gets to decide how to spend 100% of their mining block reward (or share thereof). Do you already see how Bitcoin's design removes all possible financial intermediaries - including any trusted "government" or "fund" that decides how to spend other peoples' money? If so, you already get my first point. Peter Rizun has mentioned the legal concerns around directing colluding miner funds to certain entities with expectation of results. IANAL, but I think the argument that instituting such a change on protocol level could bring BCH into conflict with security law (Howey Test) should be seriously examined.
2. Due to how information is distributed, a centrally planned economy cannot match the efficiency of the open market. A free market is all that is needed to fund things. Miners and anyone else can already fund any kind of development (or other activities) through the existing protocol. Furthermore, we know there are successful methods of funding public goods in voluntary ways through Assurance Contracts. These have not been deployed on Bitcoin Cash before (early crowdfunding systems didn't implement them properly), but are basically ready to go now (Flipstarter) and could offer BCH an improvement even over other successful systems like Monero's Community Crowdfunding System (CCS) due to the fact that we can do this non-custodially via Bitcoin Cash scripts. Going for a miner tax based "dev fund" with nebulous administration and all the accompanying hazards seems a poor choice before we tried the voluntary route which preserves the original economic freedom and incentives of Bitcoin Cash.
3. Increased centralization of mining and development. Going with the plan would work counter to a decentralized protocol client environment, and centralize even more power with the dominant client (ABC). The donation address whitelist is hardcoded into the client. Miners/pools who don't obey the new rules of contributing 5% of block reward to active whitelisted addresses have their blocks orphaned, lowering the chain hashrate (security) and driving away small miners who might not be able to afford the margin. This centralizes mining on BCH beyond what's necessary. Again, a free market will deliver better security and service!
4. Sold with a veneer of false pretenses. We are told that other (non-BCH) SHA256 miners will effectively pay the cost, but this argument has been effectively debunked. The cost is paid for all BCH holders, as it comes out of the agreed upon money supply inflation. It comes at the cost of lowered BCH chain hashrate = security, with the concomitant increased risk of other miners executing attacks on BCH. Yet, holders don't get to vote right now, except by selling their BCH or converting it into hashpower. Did you know financial markets can offer instruments to let holders express their opinion about possible futures (whether they'd prefer one outcome or another) with slight or no punishment in the case of no split - i.e. actually could facilitate a no-split outcome that many BCH users & holders recognize as preferable? Another pretense is that the plan, if successful, would terminate after a limited time. This is not what regularly happens in taxpayer-funded government programs, and it is paradoxical to assume that a measure to support ongoing maintenance and development would, if deemed successful in a trial run, be expected to be terminated. Especially if the people receiving the funds are literally the ones deciding and writing the rules. In governments we at least came up with separation of powers (legislative, judicial, executive). Why should be mix up powers again? Absolute power corrupts absolutely. Serious developers also recognize that the dollar amounts we are talking about in the proposed plan are too low to expect completion within the previously announced limited timeframes. Giving a good hint that the limited timeframe was a nothing but a public pacifier when planners already expect it to continue.
5. The proposal is poorly conceived in terms of safety against malicious activation. Only 66% of hashrate need to vote for it over a two week period. Previously, BCH miners objected to any form of hashrate voting on BCH with the argument that it is still a very-low hashrate minority fork. That has not changed materially, but suddenly we are supposed to accept that hashrate voting on our minority coin is safe. Can't have it both ways. As an additional point, there is no 6 month sunset clause built into the implementation, and it seems removed from the plan agreed between ABC and miners (as per recent ABC website post). This completely reneges on the "update" previously presented to the community in that regard, re-affirming that there is no serious commitment to ending this after a limited time.
I probably squeezed in too many explanations.
Originally my aim was to get a short summary. I should try to sum it up better, but I know there are many people who could do a much better job at that. Please speak up, correct me where you feel I'm wrong, and add points that you think are missing!
P.S. I fully realize that the ones pushing this plan are not likely to be swayed by any of these arguments.
I am presenting mine here in hopes to encourage further discussion, and I hope you will do the same, so everyone is armed with knowledge, going into what looks like it could be an escalating dispute within our community.
Perhaps though, there is a minute chance that backers of the plan could see the danger in the split that they are creating. I still have hope, but I'm also prepared to act.

##### A tech noob’s questions answered observations. (Just bought one BTC and dumped it because there are things I don’t get)

Hey all!
I bought a BTC (CORE) and almost immediately got rid of it (at the smallest of profits). I dumped it because I had the following issues with the Bitcoin community, and I’m hoping my questions will be resolved. I’m aware this is the subreddit for BCH, which is case-and-point for some of the issues I have. I’d love feedback or explanations.
My issues with the BTC community:
1. HODL culture.
I’m no great technician, but as a layman my understanding of Bitcoin’s value is that it lies in its utility. I.e. if Bitcoin has a utilitarian function its value may increase versus fiat, but regardless, that isn’t the point of Bitcoin. It isn’t to make an individual wealthy ala currency trading (although it’s amazing if it does), it’s to create a fully functional currency. Advocating for HODLing, being derisive towards subreddit members who have “weak hands”, these are signs of people who have missed the forest for the trees, intellectual supremacists who set aside the idea the notion of assigning any sort of functionality to their knowledge and instead worship it for its own sake. To me this seems a path to nowhere.
1. The air of superiority intertwined with paranoia as a whole and refusal to help those who are newcomers while accusing them of being “altcoin shills”.
If the purpose of this technology is to unite the common man against the system, doesn’t it follow that the users of this technology should seek to make themselves and their tech more accessible to the layman? Instead, it seems to me that the Bitcoiners exhibit a strange blend of paranoia and narcissism. They assume everyone who asks a question is both, beneath them and a well-versed opponent assuming subterfuge. Therefore they don’t engage in conversation which might otherwise be enlightening for the sake of not giving the trolls food. I don’t get this. Should the merits of their arguments not be strong enough that they welcome intellectual curiosity, even if it’s at the hands of one who supports a different subset of the same technology they so enthusiastically propagate?
1. The apparent lack of interest in intellectual honesty where the improvement of the technology itself is concerned.
Again, I might be wrong here, but it seems that the community as a whole obeys top-down directives when it comes to updating the chain. Now I’m no techie and I don’t understand lightning network (which may very well be better than increased block sizes) but doesn’t this negate the ‘decentralization mandate’?(I use the term mandate tongue-in-cheek). If we are deferring to higher ups, why not just rely on Banks and Governments and be done with it?
Problems I have with BCH AS WELL AS BTC
1. Practicality
It seems to me that the simplest, most practical cryptocrypto will be the first one to gain mass approval and appeal. It also seems to me that no single coin has made any sort of great strides towards that practicality. Sure, if you’re a tech enthusiast some of the larger cryptos have become much easier to use, but not if you’re a layman. How does the community view this way of thinking?
1. Crypto-education
Even if one cryptocurrency is much easier to use, I don’t know about it. This is largely because there is a lack of education among the populace, almost as much as there is disinformation about the how and why of cryptos existence. How does a crypto community view trying to go about solving this problem, especially being as decentralized as it is?
There’s more that I’m curious about, but this is plenty off the top of my head. I’d love to hear your thoughts on this.

##### CYPHERIUM ENHACES BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

OVERVIEW
Rarely has any technology such as blockchain attracted the public and media organisations. Institutions designed to catalyze the fourth industrial revolution are experimenting with technology, and investors have invested hundreds of millions of dollars in blockchain companies. This is a low-risk, experimental environment with error protection. Innovation is a combination of creativity and implementation. Ideas often must go through an evolutionary or cyclical phase before they are ready for commercialization. In fact, the cycle is so long that it is too expensive, inefficient in terms of time and money to generate and generate ideas, and in most cases almost never reaches commercial value. Thus, almost 99% of venture capital firms fail.
A fast growing technology that has come to enhance the blockchain technology is CYPHERIUM.

CHALLENGES FACING THE BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY
The Bitcoin framework is one of the most notable usage of blockchain innovations in circulated exchange based frameworks. In Bitcoin, each system hub seeks the benefit of putting away a lot of at least one exchanges in another square of the blockchain by comprehending a complex computational math issue, here and there alluded to as a mining verification of-work (POW). Under current conditions, a lot of exchanges is ordinarily put away in another square of the Bitcoin blockchain at a pace of around one new square like clockwork, and each square has an inexact size of one megabyte (MB). As needs be, the Bitcoin framework is dependent upon a looming versatility issue: as it were 3 to 7 exchanges can be handled every second, which is far underneath the quantity of exchanges handled in other exchange based frameworks, for example, the roughly 30,000 exchanges for each second in the Visa™ exchange framework. The most huge disadvantage of the Nakamoto accord is its absence of irrevocability. Conclusion implies once an exchange or an activity is performed on the blockchain, it is for all time recorded on the blockchain and difficult to turn around. This is fundamental to the wellbeing of money related repayment frameworks as exchanges must not be saved once they are made. For Bitcoin's situation, noxious on-screen characters can alter the exchange history given enough hash power, causing a twofold spending assault, given that there is sufficient motivator and money related practicality to complete such assaults. Given that mining gear leasing and botnets are at present predominant around the world, such an assault has become achievable.
Because of this absence of conclusiveness, Nakamoto accord must depend on additional measures, for example, confirmation of-work to forestall pernicious exercises. This hinders the capacity ofNakamoto accord to scale in light of the fact that a exchange must hang tight for various affirmations before coming to "probabilistic absolution".
In this way, wellbeing isn't ensured by Nakamoto agreement, and so as to secure the system, each exchange must experience extra an ideal opportunity to process. For Bitcoin's situation, an exchange isn't considered last until in any event six affirmations. Since Bitcoin can just process a couple of exchanges every second, the exchange cost is preposterously high, making it unreasonable for little installments like shopping for food or eatery feasting. This extraordinarily frustrates Bitcoin's utilization as an installment strategy in this present reality.

CYPHERIUM SOLUTIONS
Cypherium's exclusive algorithm, CypherBFT conquers burdens of the earlier craftsmanship by giving a circulated exchange framework including a gathering of validator hubs that are known to each other in a system however are undefined to the next system hubs in the system. As utilized thus, the gathering of validator hubs might be alluded to as a "Board of trustees" of validator hubs. In a few explanations, the framework reconfigures at least one validator hubs in the Committee dependent on the consequences of confirmation of-work (POW) challenges. As per some uncovered epitomes, a system hub that isn't as of now a validator hub in the Committee might be added to the Committee on the off chance that it effectively finishes a POW challenge. In such an occasion, the system hub may turn into another validator hub in the Committee, supplanting a current validator hub. In elective epitomes, a system hub may become another validator hub in the Committee dependent on a proof-of-stake (POS) accord. In yet another epitome, a system hub may turn into another validator hub in the Committee dependent on a verification of-authority (POA) agreement. In other elective exemplifications, a system hub may turn into a new validator hub in the Committee dependent on a mix of any of POW, POA, and POS accord.

In some revealed exemplifications, the new validator hub replaces a validator hub in the Committee. The substitution might be founded on a foreordained guideline known by all the hubs in the system. For model, the new validator hub may supplant the most established validator hub in the Committee. As indicated by another model, the new validator hub may supplant a validator hub that has been resolved to have gone disconnected, become bargained (e.g., hacked), fizzled (e.g., because of equipment breakdown), or in any case is inaccessible or not, at this point trusted. In the praiseworthy exemplifications, the circulated framework expect that for an adaptation to non-critical failure of f hubs, the Committee incorporates at any rate 3f +1 validator hubs.
Since the validator hubs in the Committee might be every now and again supplanted, for instance, contingent upon the measure of time required to finish the POW challenges, it is hard for vindictive outsiders to identify the total arrangement of validator hubs in the Committee at some random time.

BENEFITS OF CYPHERIUM BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY
Cypherium runs its exclusive CypherBFT accord, tied down by the HotStuff calculation, and can genuinely offer moment irrevocability for its system clients. With its HotStuff-based structure, the CypherBFT's runtime keeps going just 20-30 milliseconds (ms). A few affirmations are all that is required to for all time acknowledge a proposed obstruct into the blockchain, and it just takes 90ms for these affirmations to come to pass, making the procedure essentially quicker than the two-minutes required by EOS.
Cypherium's CypherBFT, which additionally uses HotStuff, doesn't have to pick between responsiveness and linearity. Cypherium's double blockchain structure incorporates the velocities of a dag, however its review for clients can occur a lot more straightforward and quicker, which adds to the accessibility of data and makes the data more decentralized.
As per some revealed epitomes, the validator hubs in the Committee may get exchange demands from other system hubs, for instance, in a P2P organize. The Committee may incorporate at any rate one validator hub that fills in as a "Pioneer" validator hub; the other validator hubs might be alluded to as "Partner" validator hubs. The Leader hub might be changed occasionally, on request, or inconsistently by the individuals from the Committee. At the point when any validator hub gets another exchange demand from a non-validator hub in the system, the exchange solicitation might be sent to the entirety of the validator hubs in the Committee. Further to the unveiled epitomes, the Pioneer hub facilitates with the other Associate validator hubs to arrive at an accord of an attitude (e.g., acknowledge or dismiss) for an exchange square containing the exchange solicitation and communicates the accord to the whole P2P arrange. In the event that the accord is to acknowledge or in any case approve the exchange demand, the mentioned exchange might be included another square of a blockchain that is known to in any event a portion of the system hubs in the system.
In conclusion, CYPHERIUM'S distributed smart-contracts block-chain is ideal for a good number of use cases which include (but not limited to):
Finance
Messaging
Voting
Notarization
Digital Agreements (Contracts)
Secure data storage
A.I (Artificial Intelligence)
IoT (Internet of Things
WEBSITE: https://cypherium.io/
GITHUB: https://github.com/cypherium
WHITEPAPER: https://github.com/cypherium/patent/blob/maste15224.0003%20-%20FINAL%20Draft%20Application%20(originally%200003%20invention%201)%20single%20chain%20in%20pipeline.pdf
TELEGRAM: https://t.me/cypherium_supergroup
AUTHOR: Nwali Jennifer

##### Dive Into Tendermint Consensus Protocol (I)

This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.
longcpp @ 20200618
This is Part 1 of the serialized articles aimed to explain the Tendermint consensus protocol in detail.
Part 1. Preliminary of the consensus protocol: security model and PBFT protocol
Part 2. Tendermint consensus protocol illustrated: two-phase voting protocol and the locking and unlocking mechanism
Part 3. Weighted round-robin proposer selection algorithm used in Tendermint project
Any consensus agreement that is ultimately reached is the General Agreement, that is, the majority opinion. The consensus protocol on which the blockchain system operates is no exception. As a distributed system, the blockchain system aims to maintain the validity of the system. Intuitively, the validity of the blockchain system has two meanings: firstly, there is no ambiguity, and secondly, it can process requests to update its status. The former corresponds to the safety requirements of distributed systems, while the latter to the requirements of liveness. The validity of distributed systems is mainly maintained by consensus protocols, considering the multiple nodes and network communication involved in such systems may be unstable, which has brought huge challenges to the design of consensus protocols.

## The semi-synchronous network model and Byzantine fault tolerance

Researchers of distributed systems characterize these problems that may occur in nodes and network communications using node failure models and network models. The fail-stop failure in node failure models refers to the situation where the node itself stops running due to configuration errors or other reasons, thus unable to go on with the consensus protocol. This type of failure will not cause side effects on other parts of the distributed system except that the node itself stops running. However, for such distributed systems as the public blockchain, when designing a consensus protocol, we still need to consider the evildoing intended by nodes besides their failure. These incidents are all included in the Byzantine Failure model, which covers all unexpected situations that may occur on the node, for example, passive downtime failures and any deviation intended by the nodes from the consensus protocol. For a better explanation, downtime failures refer to nodes’ passive running halt, and the Byzantine failure to any arbitrary deviation of nodes from the consensus protocol.
Compared with the node failure model which can be roughly divided into the passive and active models, the modeling of network communication is more difficult. The network itself suffers problems of instability and communication delay. Moreover, since all network communication is ultimately completed by the node which may have a downtime failure or a Byzantine failure in itself, it is usually difficult to define whether such failure arises from the node or the network itself when a node does not receive another node's network message. Although the network communication may be affected by many factors, the researchers found that the network model can be classified by the communication delay. For example, the node may fail to send data packages due to the fail-stop failure, and as a result, the corresponding communication delay is unknown and can be any value. According to the concept of communication delay, the network communication model can be divided into the following three categories:
• The synchronous network model: There is a fixed, known upper bound of delay $\Delta$ in network communication. Under this model, the maximum delay of network communication between two nodes in the network is $\Delta$. Even if there is a malicious node, the communication delay arising therefrom does not exceed $\Delta$.
• The asynchronous network model: There is an unknown delay in network communication, with the upper bound of the delay known, but the message can still be successfully delivered in the end. Under this model, the network communication delay between two nodes in the network can be any possible value, that is, a malicious node, if any, can arbitrarily extend the communication delay.
• The semi-synchronous network model: Assume that there is a Global Stabilization Time (GST), before which it is an asynchronous network model and after which, a synchronous network model. In other words, there is a fixed, known upper bound of delay in network communication $\Delta$. A malicious node can delay the GST arbitrarily, and there will be no notification when no GST occurs. Under this model, the delay in the delivery of the message at the time $T$ is $\Delta + max(T, GST)$.
The synchronous network model is the most ideal network environment. Every message sent through the network can be received within a predictable time, but this model cannot reflect the real network communication situation. As in a real network, network failures are inevitable from time to time, causing the failure in the assumption of the synchronous network model. Yet the asynchronous network model goes to the other extreme and cannot reflect the real network situation either. Moreover, according to the FLP (Fischer-Lynch-Paterson) theorem, under this model if there is one node fails, no consensus protocol will reach consensus in a limited time. In contrast, the semi-synchronous network model can better describe the real-world network communication situation: network communication is usually synchronous or may return to normal after a short time. Such an experience must be no stranger to everyone: the web page, which usually gets loaded quite fast, opens slowly every now and then, and you need to try before you know the network is back to normal since there is usually no notification. The peer-to-peer (P2P) network communication, which is widely used in blockchain projects, also makes it possible for a node to send and receive information from multiple network channels. It is unrealistic to keep blocking the network information transmission of a node for a long time. Therefore, all the discussion below is under the semi-synchronous network model.
The design and selection of consensus protocols for public chain networks that allow nodes to dynamically join and leave need to consider possible Byzantine failures. Therefore, the consensus protocol of a public chain network is designed to guarantee the security and liveness of the network under the semi-synchronous network model on the premise of possible Byzantine failure. Researchers of distributed systems point out that to ensure the security and liveness of the system, the consensus protocol itself needs to meet three requirements:
• Validity: The value reached by honest nodes must be the value proposed by one of them
• Agreement: All honest nodes must reach consensus on the same value
• Termination: The honest nodes must eventually reach consensus on a certain value
Validity and agreement can guarantee the security of the distributed system, that is, the honest nodes will never reach a consensus on a random value, and once the consensus is reached, all honest nodes agree on this value. Termination guarantees the liveness of distributed systems. A distributed system unable to reach consensus is useless.

## The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem

In a semi-synchronous network, is it possible to design a Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that satisfies validity, agreement, and termination? How many Byzantine nodes can a system tolerance? The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem provide an answer for these two questions and have thus become the basic guidelines for the design of Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols.
Lamport, Shostak, and Pease abstracted the design of the consensus mechanism in the distributed system in 1982 as the Byzantine Generals Problem, which refers to such a situation as described below: several generals each lead the army to fight in the war, and their troops are stationed in different places. The generals must formulate a unified action plan for the victory. However, since the camps are far away from each other, they can only communicate with each other through the communication soldiers, or, in other words, they cannot appear on the same occasion at the same time to reach a consensus. Unfortunately, among the generals, there is a traitor or two who intend to undermine the unified actions of the loyal generals by sending the wrong information, and the communication soldiers cannot send the message to the destination by themselves. It is assumed that each communication soldier can prove the information he has brought comes from a certain general, just as in the case of a real BFT consensus protocol, each node has its public and private keys to establish an encrypted communication channel for each other to ensure that its messages will not be tampered with in the network communication, and the message receiver can also verify the sender of the message based thereon. As already mentioned, any consensus agreement ultimately reached represents the consensus of the majority. In the process of generals communicating with each other for an offensive or retreat, a general also makes decisions based on the majority opinion from the information collected by himself.
According to the research of Lamport et al, if there are 1/3 or more traitors in the node, the generals cannot reach a unified decision. For example, in the following figure, assume there are 3 generals and only 1 traitor. In the figure on the left, suppose that General C is the traitor, and A and B are loyal. If A wants to launch an attack and informs B and C of such intention, yet the traitor C sends a message to B, suggesting what he has received from A is a retreat. In this case, B can't decide as he doesn't know who the traitor is, and the information received is insufficient for him to decide. If A is a traitor, he can send different messages to B and C. Then C faithfully reports to B the information he received. At this moment as B receives conflicting information, he cannot make any decisions. In both cases, even if B had received consistent information, it would be impossible for him to spot the traitor between A and C. Therefore, it is obvious that in both situations shown in the figure below, the honest General B cannot make a choice.
According to this conclusion, when there are $n$ generals with at most $f$ traitors (n≤3f), the generals cannot reach a consensus if $n \leq 3f$; and with $n > 3f$, a consensus can be reached. This conclusion also suggests that when the number of Byzantine failures $f$ exceeds 1/3 of the total number of nodes $n$ in the system $f \ge n/3$ , no consensus will be reached on any consensus protocol among all honest nodes. Only when $f < n/3$, such condition is likely to happen, without loss of generality, and for the subsequent discussion on the consensus protocol, $n \ge 3f + 1$ by default.
The conclusion reached by Lamport et al. on the Byzantine Generals Problem draws a line between the possible and the impossible in the design of the Byzantine fault tolerance consensus protocol. Within the possible range, how will the consensus protocol be designed? Can both the security and liveness of distributed systems be fully guaranteed? Brewer provided the answer in his CAP theorem in 2000. It indicated that a distributed system requires the following three basic attributes, but any distributed system can only meet two of the three at the same time.
1. Consistency: When any node responds to the request, it must either provide the latest status information or provide no status information
2. Availability: Any node in the system must be able to continue reading and writing
3. Partition Tolerance: The system can tolerate the loss of any number of messages between two nodes and still function normally

https://preview.redd.it/1ozfwk7u7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=fdee6318de2cf1c021e636654766a7a0fe7b38b4
A distributed system aims to provide consistent services. Therefore, the consistency attribute requires that the two nodes in the system cannot provide conflicting status information or expired information, which can ensure the security of the distributed system. The availability attribute is to ensure that the system can continuously update its status and guarantee the availability of distributed systems. The partition tolerance attribute is related to the network communication delay, and, under the semi-synchronous network model, it can be the status before GST when the network is in an asynchronous status with an unknown delay in the network communication. In this condition, communicating nodes may not receive information from each other, and the network is thus considered to be in a partitioned status. Partition tolerance requires the distributed system to function normally even in network partitions.
The proof of the CAP theorem can be demonstrated with the following diagram. The curve represents the network partition, and each network has four nodes, distinguished by the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. The distributed system stores color information, and all the status information stored by all nodes is blue at first.
1. Partition tolerance and availability mean the loss of consistency: When node 1 receives a new request in the leftmost image, the status changes to red, the status transition information of node 1 is passed to node 3, and node 3 also updates the status information to red. However, since node 3 and node 4 did not receive the corresponding information due to the network partition, the status information is still blue. At this moment, if the status information is queried through node 2, the blue returned by node 2 is not the latest status of the system, thus losing consistency.
2. Partition tolerance and consistency mean the loss of availability: In the middle figure, the initial status information of all nodes is blue. When node 1 and node 3 update the status information to red, node 2 and node 4 maintain the outdated information as blue due to network partition. Also when querying status information through node 2, you need to first ask other nodes to make sure you’re in the latest status before returning status information as node 2 needs to follow consistency, but because of the network partition, node 2 cannot receive any information from node 1 or node 3. Then node 2 cannot determine whether it is in the latest status, so it chooses not to return any information, thus depriving the system of availability.
3. Consistency and availability mean the loss of the partition tolerance: In the right-most figure, the system does not have a network partition at first, and both status updates and queries can go smoothly. However, once a network partition occurs, it degenerates into one of the previous two conditions. It is thus proved that any distributed system cannot have consistency, availability, and partition tolerance all at the same time.

The discovery of the CAP theorem seems to declare that the aforementioned goals of the consensus protocol is impossible. However, if you’re careful enough, you may find from the above that those are all extreme cases, such as network partitions that cause the failure of information transmission, which could be rare, especially in P2P network. In the second case, the system rarely returns the same information with node 2, and the general practice is to query other nodes and return the latest status as believed after a while, regardless of whether it has received the request information of other nodes. Therefore, although the CAP theorem points out that any distributed system cannot satisfy the three attributes at the same time, it is not a binary choice, as the designer of the consensus protocol can weigh up all the three attributes according to the needs of the distributed system. However, as the communication delay is always involved in the distributed system, one always needs to choose between availability and consistency while ensuring a certain degree of partition tolerance. Specifically, in the second case, it is about the value that node 2 returns: a probably outdated value or no value. Returning the possibly outdated value may violate consistency but guarantees availability; yet returning no value deprives the system of availability but guarantees its consistency. Tendermint consensus protocol to be introduced is consistent in this trade-off. In other words, it will lose availability in some cases.
The genius of Satoshi Nakamoto is that with constraints of the CAP theorem, he managed to reach a reliable Byzantine consensus in a distributed network by combining PoW mechanism, Satoshi Nakamoto consensus, and economic incentives with appropriate parameter configuration. Whether Bitcoin's mechanism design solves the Byzantine Generals Problem has remained a dispute among academicians. Garay, Kiayias, and Leonardos analyzed the link between Bitcoin mechanism design and the Byzantine consensus in detail in their paper The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. In simple terms, the Satoshi Consensus is a probabilistic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that depends on such conditions as the network communication environment and the proportion of malicious nodes' hashrate. When the proportion of malicious nodes’ hashrate does not exceed 1/2 in a good network communication environment, the Satoshi Consensus can reliably solve the Byzantine consensus problem in a distributed environment. However, when the environment turns bad, even with the proportion within 1/2, the Satoshi Consensus may still fail to reach a reliable conclusion on the Byzantine consensus problem. It is worth noting that the quality of the network environment is relative to Bitcoin's block interval. The 10-minute block generation interval of the Bitcoin can ensure that the system is in a good network communication environment in most cases, given the fact that the broadcast time of a block in the distributed network is usually just several seconds. In addition, economic incentives can motivate most nodes to actively comply with the agreement. It is thus considered that with the current Bitcoin network parameter configuration and mechanism design, the Bitcoin mechanism design has reliably solved the Byzantine Consensus problem in the current network environment.

## Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, PBFT

It is not an easy task to design the Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol in a semi-synchronous network. The first practically usable Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol is the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) designed by Castro and Liskov in 1999, the first of its kind with polynomial complexity. For a distributed system with $n$ nodes, the communication complexity is $O(n2$.) Castro and Liskov showed in the paper that by transforming centralized file system into a distributed one using the PBFT protocol, the overwall performance was only slowed down by 3%. In this section we will briefly introduce the PBFT protocol, paving the way for further detailed explanations of the Tendermint protocol and the improvements of the Tendermint protocol.
The PBFT protocol that includes $n=3f+1$ nodes can tolerate up to $f$ Byzantine nodes. In the original paper of PBFT, full connection is required among all the $n$ nodes, that is, any two of the n nodes must be connected. All the nodes of the network jointly maintain the system status through network communication. In the Bitcoin network, a node can participate in or exit the consensus process through hashrate mining at any time, which is managed by the administrator, and the PFBT protocol needs to determine all the participating nodes before the protocol starts. All nodes in the PBFT protocol are divided into two categories, master nodes, and slave nodes. There is only one master node at any time, and all nodes take turns to be the master node. All nodes run in a rotation process called View, in each of which the master node will be reelected. The master node selection algorithm in PBFT is very simple: all nodes become the master node in turn by the index number. In each view, all nodes try to reach a consensus on the system status. It is worth mentioning that in the PBFT protocol, each node has its own digital signature key pair. All sent messages (including request messages from the client) need to be signed to ensure the integrity of the message in the network and the traceability of the message itself. (You can determine who sent a message based on the digital signature).
The following figure shows the basic flow of the PBFT consensus protocol. Assume that the current view’s master node is node 0. Client C initiates a request to the master node 0. After the master node receives the request, it broadcasts the request to all slave nodes that process the request of client C and return the result to the client. After the client receives f+1 identical results from different nodes (based on the signature value), the result can be taken as the final result of the entire operation. Since the system can have at most f Byzantine nodes, at least one of the f+1 results received by the client comes from an honest node, and the security of the consensus protocol guarantees that all honest nodes will reach consensus on the same status. So, the feedback from 1 honest node is enough to confirm that the corresponding request has been processed by the system.

https://preview.redd.it/sz8so5ly7m851.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=d472810e76bbc202e91a25ef29a51e109a576554
For the status synchronization of all honest nodes, the PBFT protocol has two constraints on each node: on one hand, all nodes must start from the same status, and on the other, the status transition of all nodes must be definite, that is, given the same status and request, the results after the operation must be the same. Under these two constraints, as long as the entire system agrees on the processing order of all transactions, the status of all honest nodes will be consistent. This is also the main purpose of the PBFT protocol: to reach a consensus on the order of transactions between all nodes, thereby ensuring the security of the entire distributed system. In terms of availability, the PBFT consensus protocol relies on a timeout mechanism to find anomalies in the consensus process and start the View Change protocol in time to try to reach a consensus again.
The figure above shows a simplified workflow of the PBFT protocol. Where C is the client, 0, 1, 2, and 3 represent 4 nodes respectively. Specifically, 0 is the master node of the current view, 1, 2, 3 are slave nodes, and node 3 is faulty. Under normal circumstances, the PBFT consensus protocol reaches consensus on the order of transactions between nodes through a three-phase protocol. These three phases are respectively: Pre-Prepare, Prepare, and Commit:
• The master node of the pre-preparation node is responsible for assigning the sequence number to the received client request, and broadcasting the message to the slave node. The message contains the hash value of the client request d, the sequence number of the current viewv, the sequence number n assigned by the master node to the request, and the signature information of the master nodesig. The scheme design of the PBFT protocol separates the request transmission from the request sequencing process, and the request transmission is not to be discussed here. The slave node that receives the message accepts the message after confirming the message is legitimate and enter preparation phase. The message in this step checks the basic signature, hash value, current view, and, most importantly, whether the master node has given the same sequence number to other request from the client in the current view.
• In preparation, the slave node broadcasts the message to all nodes (including itself), indicating that it assigns the sequence number n to the client request with the hash value d under the current view v, with its signaturesig as proof. The node receiving the message will check the correctness of the signature, the matching of the view sequence number, etc., and accept the legitimate message. When the PRE-PREPARE message about a client request (from the main node) received by a node matches with the PREPARE from 2f slave nodes, the system has agreed on the sequence number requested by the client in the current view. This means that 2f+1 nodes in the current view agree with the request sequence number. Since it contains information from at most fmalicious nodes, there are a total of f+1 honest nodes that have agreed with the allocation of the request sequence number. With f malicious nodes, there are a total of 2f+1 honest nodes, so f+1represents the majority of the honest nodes, which is the consensus of the majority mentioned before.
• After the node (including the master node and the slave node) receives a PRE-PREPARE message requested by the client and 2f PREPARE messages, the message is broadcast across the network and enters the submission phase. This message is used to indicate that the node has observed that the whole network has reached a consensus on the sequence number allocation of the request message from the client. When the node receives 2f+1 COMMIT messages, there are at least f+1 honest nodes, that is, most of the honest nodes have observed that the entire network has reached consensus on the arrangement of sequence numbers of the request message from the client. The node can process the client request and return the execution result to the client at this moment.
Roughly speaking, in the pre-preparation phase, the master node assigns a sequence number to all new client requests. During preparation, all nodes reach consensus on the client request sequence number in this view, while in submission the consistency of the request sequence number of the client in different views is to be guaranteed. In addition, the design of the PBFT protocol itself does not require the request message to be submitted by the assigned sequence number, but out of order. That can improve the efficiency of the implementation of the consensus protocol. Yet, the messages are still processed by the sequence number assigned by the consensus protocol for the consistency of the distributed system.
In the three-phase protocol execution of the PBFT protocol, in addition to maintaining the status information of the distributed system, the node itself also needs to log all kinds of consensus information it receives. The gradual accumulation of logs will consume considerable system resources. Therefore, the PBFT protocol additionally defines checkpoints to help the node deal with garbage collection. You can set a checkpoint every 100 or 1000 sequence numbers according to the request sequence number. After the client request at the checkpoint is executed, the node broadcasts messages throughout the network, indicating that after the node executes the client request with sequence number n, the hash value of the system status is d, and it is vouched by its own signature sig. After 2f+1 matching CHECKPOINT messages (one of which can come from the node itself) are received, most of the honest nodes in the entire network have reached a consensus on the system status after the execution of the client request with the sequence numbern, and then you can clear all relevant log records of client requests with the sequence number less than n. The node needs to save these2f+1 CHECKPOINTmessages as proof of the legitimate status at this moment, and the corresponding checkpoint is called a stable checkpoint.
The three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol can ensure the consistency of the processing order of the client request, and the checkpoint mechanism is set to help nodes perform garbage collection and further ensures the status consistency of the distributed system, both of which can guarantee the security of the distributed system aforementioned. How is the availability of the distributed system guaranteed? In the semi-synchronous network model, a timeout mechanism is usually introduced, which is related to delays in the network environment. It is assumed that the network delay has a known upper bound after GST. In such condition, an initial value is usually set according to the network condition of the system deployed. In case of a timeout event, besides the corresponding processing flow triggered, additional mechanisms will be activated to readjust the waiting time. For example, an algorithm like TCP's exponential back off can be adopted to adjust the waiting time after a timeout event.
To ensure the availability of the system in the PBFT protocol, a timeout mechanism is also introduced. In addition, due to the potential the Byzantine failure in the master node itself, the PBFT protocol also needs to ensure the security and availability of the system in this case. When the Byzantine failure occurs in the master node, for example, when the slave node does not receive the PRE-PREPARE message or the PRE-PREPARE message sent by the master node from the master node within the time window and is thus determined to be illegitimate, the slave node can broadcast to the entire network, indicating that the node requests to switch to the new view with sequence number v+1. n indicates the request sequence number corresponding to the latest stable checkpoint local to the node, and C is to prove the stable checkpoint 2f+1 legitimate CHECKPOINT messages as aforementioned. After the latest stable checkpoint and before initiating the VIEWCHANGE message, the system may have reached a consensus on the sequence numbers of some request messages in the previous view. To ensure the consistency of these request sequence numbers to be switched in the view, the VIEWCHANGE message needs to carry this kind of the information to the new view, which is also the meaning of the P field in the message. P contains all the client request messages collected at the node with a request sequence number greater than n and the proof that a consensus has been reached on the sequence number in the node: the legitimate PRE-PREPARE message of the request and 2f matching PREPARE messages. When the master node in view v+1 collects 2f+1 VIEWCHANGE messages, it can broadcast the NEW-VIEW message and take the entire system into a new view. For the security of the system in combination with the three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol, the construction rules of the NEW-VIEW information are designed in a quite complicated way. You can refer to the original paper of PBFT for more details.

VIEWCHANGE contains a lot of information. For example, C contains 2f+1 signature information, P contains several signature sets, and each set has 2f+1 signature. At least 2f+1 nodes need to send a VIEWCHANGE message before prompting the system to enter the next new view, and that means, in addition to the complex logic of constructing the information of VIEWCHANGE and NEW-VIEW, the communication complexity of the view conversion protocol is $O(n2$.) Such complexity also limits the PBFT protocol to support only a few nodes, and when there are 100 nodes, it is usually too complex to practically deploy PBFT. It is worth noting that in some materials the communication complexity of the PBFT protocol is inappropriately attributed to the full connection between n nodes. By changing the fully connected network topology to the P2P network topology based on distributed hash tables commonly used in blockchain projects, high communication complexity caused by full connection can be conveniently solved, yet still, it is difficult to improve the communication complexity during the view conversion process. In recent years, researchers have proposed to reduce the amount of communication in this step by adopting aggregate signature scheme. With this technology, 2f+1 signature information can be compressed into one, thereby reducing the communication volume during view change.

##### Bitcoin Unlimited Response to the Claim that our organisation supports BSV

https://preview.redd.it/3ln9aepxr5g41.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=01759a0c70f4ab54316c12d61b907d2e17c63368
We recently ran a survey of the Bitcoin Cash community because your opinions are extremely important to us. Thank you to all of you who gave us feedback, it was much appreciated. If any of you would still like to complete the survey it can be found HERE. We gained lots of useful insights from this feedback and we intend to use this to offer even more value to the BCH ecosystem.

# Some Issues We Need To Clarify

The survey did also bring to light a number of issues which require some clarity. One key issue that a number of respondents mentioned was that they felt BU was in support of BSV or BTC. We felt that this was something we needed to correct ASAP as this could not be further from the truth. From the moment the BCH was created (and even long before), BU has been working tirelessly in support of BCH through many different initiatives that were voted on by the BU membership. BU continues to have 100% of its resources devoted to supporting the Bitcoin Cash ecosystem.
Bitcoin Unlimited operates through a voting process whereby members of the organisation propose BUIPs (BU improvement proposals) which are then voted on by the membership. Proposals that receive the required number of votes in favour are considered to be successful and the organisation will support them. In this way Bitcoin Unlimited makes itself both guided by and accountable to its membership.
It is true that some (a minority) of BU members are supporters of BitcoinSV, and this can cause some conflict. This is unfortunately one of the many negative artefacts from a split happening in a decentralised currency. Even so, the Bitcoin Unlimited organisation has remained not only focused and functional, but also strongly in support of Bitcoin Cash. In fact, the BU membership and the organisation’s governance model has shown time and time again that BU is fully in support of BCH - a peer to peer electronic cash system. The voting results from the relevant BUIPs support this fact. Below you will find the voting results for all BUIP related to the BCH/BSV issue, and you will see that at every opportunity BU as an organisation has voted in support of BCH.

BUIP No. BUIP TITLE RESULT SUMMARY
BUIP098 BU Strategy for Nov 2018 upgrade FOR Tried to stop the ecosystem from splitting.
BUIP101 Default max blocksize cap (hard limit) 10 TB AGAINST Blocked a BSV supporting major change.
BUIP107 Sell the BCH portion of BU funds for BSV AGAINST Voted down holding any BSV.
BUIP113 Support BSV with Official Implementation AGAINST Denounced BSV in support of BCH.
BUIP114 Drop Support of BSV HF Config Params in BUCash FOR Denounced BSV in support of BCH.
BUIP115 Drop support for BTC FOR Denounced BTC (formally).
BUIP127 Partially re-weight 50% BTC to BCH AGAINST Voted to not buy more BCH using BTC.

# Where This Confusion Has Come From

We speculate that some of the confusion also comes from two sources. First, the fact that BUIP098 required BU to implement some features proposed by nChain that became part of BSV. BU implemented these features (after a BUIP was approved) for the miners to vote on them in the hopes this would avoid a split. Post-fork no BSV related commits were made and these features were removed. Additionally, many of these features are on the BCH roadmap (scalability, etc), so supporting implementation and compromise actually would further BCH’s goals.
Second, BU officers posted statements (in their own capacity, not as official BU statements) arguing to delay or stop the proposed CTOR feature. Dispute over a specific feature cannot and should not be construed as support for another blockchain.
It was important to also include BUIP127 “Partially re-weight 50% BTC to BCH” in this list (which was voted down) as this has been cause for some to claim BU does not support BCH, even in light of the significant evidence to the contrary. This specific issue requires a much more detailed explanation and therefore deserves it’s own article, which is to be published shortly.
We hope this has hopefully cleared up some of the confusion within the community, and shows BU’s continued commitment to Bitcoin Cash.
----------------------------- If you are interested in becoming a member of BU and help guide the organisation then get in touch HERE.

##### The Kava Labs Video Tracker! (YouTube)

This topic tracks the various Youtube uploads regarding Kava Labs. The Kava team checks YouTube everyday - even is a video generally has a "negative outlook" as long as it is educational it will be included here.
If a YouTube video is NOT included here, then it most likely means that it contains false information, and can not be endorsed by Kava in anyway.

# Featured Videos:

The Featured section are what Kava feels are the best resources for information

• Ivan on Tech

• Bitcoin For Beginners

• CryptoCoinShow

• Coin Bureau
• https://youtu.be/fHmjsQUqALY
• Published: Jan 7, 2020
• Context: Project Overview - Kava Website & White Paper Walkthrough. (Very Good - Short & Sweet)

• Layer1: A Crypto Podcast
• https://youtu.be/MRD7ndPOb4A
• Published: Dec 12, 2019
• Context: Dual Podcast & Video Interview w/ Kava CEO Brian Kerr (The Gundam Suit Analogy)

• NEAR Protocol
• https://youtu.be/TAnLaeiRNTA
• Published: Dec 11, 2019
• Context: Technical Tutorial/Demonstration - Lead Developer Kevin Davis illustrates Kava's Node & Validation system (Whiteboard Illustration)

• CryptoCoinShow

# Monthly Tracker:

This videos in this section are ordered by their published dates, w/ the most recent being first.

# Summer 2019

These video's may be outdated & no longer relevant.

Note: The vast majority of the video's published during the summer of 2019 are outdated & no longer relevant. Many are also XRP related, and although XRP will be supported by the Kava Defi Lending platform in the near future, this is no longer breaking news.