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Comprehensive Guide for getting into Home Recording

I'm going to borrow from a few sources and do my best to make this cohesive, but this question comes up a lot. I thought we had a comprehensive guide, but it doesn't appear so. In the absence of this, I feel that a lot of you could use a simple place to go for some basics on recording. There are a couple of great resources online already on some drumming forums, but I don't think they will be around forever.
Some background on myself - I have been drumming a long time. During that time, home recording has gone from using a cassette deck to having a full blown studio at your finger tips. The technology in the last 15 years has gotten so good it really is incredible. When I was trying to decide what I wanted to do with my life, I decided to go to school for audio engineering in a world-class studio. During this time I had access to the studio and was able to assist with engineering on several projects. This was awesome, and I came out with a working knowledge of SIGNAL CHAIN, how audio works in the digital realm, how microphones work, studio design, etc. Can I answer your questions? Yes.

First up: Signal Chain! This is the basic building block of recording. Ever seen a "I have this plugged in but am getting no sound!" thread? Yeah, signal chain.

A "Signal Chain" is the path your audio follows, from sound source, to the recording device, and back out of your monitors (speakers to you normies).
A typical complete signal chain might go something like this:
1] instrument/sound source 2] Microphone/TransducePickup 3] Cable 4] Mic Preamp/DI Box 5] Analog-to-Digital Converter 6] Digital transmission medium[digital data get recoded for usb or FW transfer] 7] Digital recording Device 8] DSP and Digital summing/playback engine 9] Digital-to-Analog Converter 10] Analog output stage[line outputs and output gain/volume control] 11] Monitors/Playback device[headphones/other transducers]
Important Terms, Definitions, and explanations (this will be where the "core" information is):
1] AD Conversion: the process by which the electrical signal is "converted" to a stream of digital code[binary, 1 and 0]. This is accomplished, basically, by taking digital pictures of the audio...and this is known as the "sampling rate/frequency" The number of "pictures" determines the frequency. So the CD standard of 44.1k is 44,100 "pictures" per second of digital code that represents the electrical "wave" of audio. It should be noted that in order to reproduce a frequency accuratly, the sampling rate must be TWICE that of the desired frequency (See: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem). So, a 44.1 digital audio device can, in fact, only record frequencies as high as 22.05khz, and in the real world, the actual upper frequency limit is lower, because the AD device employs a LOW-PASS filter to protect the circuitry from distortion and digital errors called "ALIASING." Confused yet? Don't worry, there's more... We haven't even talked about Bit depth! There are 2 settings for recording digitally: Sample Rate and Bit Depth. Sample rate, as stated above, determines the frequencies captured, however bit depth is used to get a better picture of the sample. Higher bit depth = more accurate sound wave representation. More on this here. Generally speaking, I record at 92KHz/24 bit depth. This makes huge files, but gets really accurate audio. Why does it make huge files? Well, if you are sampling 92,000 times per second, you are taking each sample and applying 24 bits to that, multiply it out and you get 92,000*24 = 2,208,000 bits per second or roughly 0.26MB per second for ONE TRACK. If that track is 5 minutes long, that is a file that is 78.96MB in size. Now lets say you used 8 inputs on an interface, that is, in total, 631.7MB of data. Wow, that escalates quick, right? There is something else to note as well here: Your CPU has to calculate this. So the amount of calculations it needs to perform for this same scenario is ~17.7 million calculations PER SECOND. This is why CPU speed and RAM is super important when recording digitally.
2] DA conversion: the process by which the digital code (the computer representation of a sound wave) is transformed back into electrcal energy in the proper shape. In a oversimplified explanation, the code is measured and the output of the convertor reflects the value of the code by changing voltage. Think of a sound wave on a grid: Frequency would represent the X axis (the horizontal axis)... but there is a vertical axis too. This is called AMPLITUDE or how much energy the wave is generating. People refer to this as how 'loud' a sound is, but that's not entirely correct. You can have a high amplitude wave that is played at a quiet volume. It's important to distinguish the two. How loud a sound is can be controlled by the volume on a speaker or transducer. But that has no impact on how much amplitude the sound wave has in the digital space or "in the wire" on its way to the transducer. So don't get hung up on how "loud" a waveform is, it is how much amplitude it has when talking about it "in the box" or before it gets to the speakeheadphone/whatever.
3] Cables: An often overlooked expense and tool, cables can in fact, make or break your recording. The multitudes of types of cable are determined by the connector, the gauge(thickness), shielding, type of conductor, etc... Just some bullet points on cables:
- Always get the highest quality cabling you can afford. Low quality cables often employ shielding that doesnt efectively protect against AC hums(60 cycle hum), RF interference (causing your cable to act as a gigantic AM/CB radio antenna), or grounding noise introduced by other components in your system. - The way cables are coiled and treated can determine their lifespan and effectiveness. A kinked cable can mean a broken shield, again, causing noise problems. - The standard in the USA for wiring an XLR(standard microphone) cable is: PIN 1= Cold/-, PIN 2= Hot/+, PIN 3=Ground/shield. Pin 3 carries phantom power, so it is important that the shield of your cables be intact and in good condition if you want to use your mic cables without any problems. - Cables for LINE LEVEL and HI-Z(instrument level) gear are not the same! - Line Level Gear, weather professional or consumer, should generally be used with balanced cables (on a 1/4" connector, it will have 3 sections and is commonly known as TRS -or- TipRingSleeve). A balanced 1/4" is essentially the same as a microphone cable, and in fact, most Professional gear with balanced line inputs and outputs will have XLR connectors instead of 1/4" connectors. - Hi-Z cable for instruments (guitars, basses, keyboards, or anything with a pickup) is UNBALANCED, and should be so. The introduction of a balanced cable can cause electricity to be sent backwards into a guitar and shock the guitar player. You may want this to happen, but your gear doesn't. There is some danger here as well, especially on stage, where the voltage CAN BE LETHAL. When running a guitabass/keyboard "Direct" into your interface, soundcard, or recording device, you should ALWAYS use a "DIRECT BOX", which uses a transformer to isolate and balance the the signal or you can use any input on the interface designated as a "Instrument" or "Hi-Z" input. It also changes some electrical properties, resulting in a LINE LEVEL output (it amplifies it from instrument level to line level).
4] Digital Data Transmissions: This includes S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, MADI. I'm gonna give a brief overview of this stuff, since its unlikely that alot of you will ever really have to think about it: - SDPIF= Sony Phillips Digital Interface Format. using RCA or TOSLINK connectors, this is a digital protocol that carries 3 streams of information. Digital audio Left, Digital Audio Right, and CLOCK. SPDIF generally supports 48khz/20bit information, though some modern devices can support up to 24bits, and up to 88.2khz. SPDIF is the consumer format of AES/EBU - AES/EBU= Audio Engineering Society/European Breadcasters Union Digital protocol uses a special type of cable often terminated with XLR connectors to transmit 2 channels of Digital Audio. AES/EBU is found mostly on expensive professional digital gear. - ADAT= the Alesis Digital Audio Tape was introduced in 1991, and was the first casette based system capable of recording 8 channels of digital audio onto a single cartridge(a SUPER-VHS tape, same one used by high quality VCR's). Enough of the history, its not so important because we are talking about ADAT-LIGHTPIPE Protocol, which is a digital transmission protocol that uses fiberoptic cable and devices to send up to 8 channels of digital audio simultaneously and in sync. ADAT-Lightpipe supports up to 48khz sample rates. This is how people expand the number of inputs by chaining interfaces. - MADI is something you will almost never encounter. It is a protocol that allows up to 64 channels of digital audio to be transmitted over a single cable that is terminated by BNC connectors. Im just telling you it exists so in case you ever encounter a digital snake that doesnt use Gigabit Ethernet, you will know whats going on.
digital transmission specs: SPDIF -> clock->2Ch->RCA cable(consumer) ADAT-Lightpipe->clock->8Ch->Toslink(semi-pro) SPDIF-OPTICAL->clock->2Ch->Toslink(consumer) AES/EBU->clock->2Ch->XLR(Pro) TDIF->clock->8Ch->DSub(Semi-Pro) ______________ MADI->no clock->64Ch->BNC{rare except in large scale pofessional apps} SDIF-II->no clock->24Ch->DSub{rare!} AES/EBU-13->no clock->24Ch->DSub
5] MICROPHONES: There are many types of microphones, and several names for each type. The type of microphone doesn't equate to the polar pattern of the microphone. There are a few common polar patterns in microphones, but there are also several more that are less common. These are the main types- Omni-Directional, Figure 8 (bi-directional), Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hyper Cardioid, Shotgun. Some light reading.... Now for the types of microphones: - Dynamic Microphones utilize polarized magnets to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. there are 2 types of dynamic microphones: 1) Moving Coil microphones are the most common type of microphone made. They are also durable, and capable of handling VERY HIGH SPL (sound pressure levels). 2) Ribbon microphones are rare except in professional recording studios. Ribbon microphones are also incredibly fragile. NEVER EVER USE PHANTOM POWER WITH A RIBBON MICROPHONE, IT WILL DIE (unless it specifically requires it, but I've only ever seen this on one Ribbon microphone ever). Sometimes it might even smoke or shoot out a few sparks; applying phantom power to a Ribbon Microphone will literally cause the ribbon, which is normally made from Aluminum, to MELT. Also, windblasts and plosives can rip the ribbon, so these microphones are not suitible for things like horns, woodwinds, vocals, kick drums, or anything that "pushes air." There have been some advances in Ribbon microphones and they are getting to be more common, but they are still super fragile and you have to READ THE MANUAL CAREFULLY to avoid a $1k+ mistake. - CondenseCapacitor Microphones use an electrostatic charge to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. The movement of the diaphragm(often metal coated mylar) toward a ceramic "backplate" causes a fluctuation in the charge, which is then amplified inside the microphone and output as an electrical signal. Condenser microphones usually use phantom power to charge the capacitors' and backplate in order to maintain the electrostatic charge. There are several types of condenser microphones: 1) Tube Condenser Microphones: historically, this type of microphone has been used in studios since the 1940s, and has been refined and redesigned hundreds, if not thousands of times. Some of the "best sounding" and most desired microphones EVER MADE are Tube Condenser microphones from the 50's and 60's. These vintage microphones, in good condition, with the original TUBES can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tube mics are known for sounding "full", "warm", and having a particular character, depending on the exact microphone. No 2 tubes mics, even of the same model, will sound the same. Similar, but not the same. Tube mics have their own power supplies, which are not interchangeable to different models. Each tube mic is a different design, and therefore, has different power requirements. 2) FET Condenser microphones: FET stands for "Field Effect Transistor" and the technology allowed condenser microphones to be miniturized. Take for example, the SHURE beta98s/d, which is a minicondenser microphone. FET technology is generally more transparant than tube technology, but can sometimes sound "harsh" or "sterile". 3) Electret Condenser Microphones are a condenser microphone that has a permanent charge, and therefore, does not require phantom power; however, the charge is not truly permanent, and these mics often use AA or 9V batteries, either inside the mic, or on a beltpack. These are less common.
Other important things to know about microphones:
- Pads, Rolloffs, etc: Some mics have switches or rotating collars that notate certain things. Most commonly, high pass filters/lowcut filters, or attenuation pads. 1) A HP/LC Filter does exactly what you might think: Removes low frequency content from the signal at a set frequency and slope. Some microphones allow you to switch the rolloff frequency. Common rolloff frequencies are 75hz, 80hz, 100hz, 120hz, 125hz, and 250hz. 2) A pad in this example is a switch that lowers the output of the microphone directly after the capsule to prevent overloading the input of a microphone preamplifier. You might be asking: How is that possible? Some microphones put out a VERY HIGH SIGNAL LEVEL, sometimes about line level(-10/+4dbu), mic level is generally accepted to start at -75dbu and continues increasing until it becomes line level in voltage. It should be noted that linel level signals are normally of a different impedance than mic level signals, which is determined by the gear. An example for this would be: I mic the top of a snare drum with a large diaphragm condenser mic (solid state mic, not tube) that is capable of handling very high SPLs (sound pressure levels). When the snare drum is played, the input of the mic preamp clips (distorts), even with the gain turned all the way down. To combat this, I would use a pad with enough attenuation to lower the signal into the proper range of input (-60db to -40 db). In general, it is accepted to use a pad with only as much attentuation as you need, plus a small margin of error for extra “headroom”. What this means is that if you use a 20db pad where you only need a 10db pad, you will then have to add an additional 10db of gain to achieve a desireable signal level. This can cause problems, as not all pads sound good, or even transparent, and can color and affect your signal in sometimes unwanted ways that are best left unamplified. - Other mic tips/info: 1) when recording vocals, you should always use a popfilter. A pop filter mounted on a gooseneck is generally more effective than a windscreen made of foam that slips over the microphone. The foam type often kill the highfrequency response, alter the polar pattern, and can introduce non-linear polarity problems(part of the frequency spectrum will be out of phase.) If you don't have a pop filter or don't want to spend on one, buy or obtain a hoop of some kind, buy some cheap panty-hose and stretch it over the hoop to build your own pop filter. 2) Terms Related to mics: - Plosives: “B”, “D”, “F”, “G”, “J”, “P”, “T” hard consonants and other vocal sounds that cause windblasts. These are responsible for a low frequency pop that can severly distort the diaphragm of the microphone, or cause a strange inconsistency of tonality by causing a short term proximity effect.
- Proximity effect: An exponential increase in low frequency response causes by having a microphone excessivly close to a sound. This can be cause by either the force of the air moving actually causes the microphone’s diaphragm to move and sometimes distort, usually on vocalists or buy the buildup of low frequency soundwaves due to off-axis cancellation ports. You cannot get proximity effect on an omnidirectional microphone. With some practice, you can use proximity effect to your advantage, or as an effect. For example, if you are recording someone whispering and it sounds thin or weak and irritating due to the intenese high mid and high frequency content, get the person very close to a cardioid microphone with two popfilters, back to back approx 1/2”-1” away from the mic and set your gain carefully, and you can achieve a very intimite recording of whispering. In a different scenario, you can place a mic inside of a kick drum between 1”-3” away from the inner shell, angled up and at the point of impact, and towards the floor tom. This usually captures a huge low end, and the sympathetic vibration of the floor tom on the kick drum hits, but retains a clarity of attack without being distorted by the SPL of the drum and without capturing unplesant low-mid resonation of the kick drum head and shell that is common directly in the middle of the shell.
6) Wave Envelope: The envelope is the graphical representation of a sound wave commonly found in a DAW. There are 4 parts to this: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release: 1) Attack is how quickly the sound reaches its peak amplitude; 2) Decay is the time it takes to reach the sustain level; 3) Sustain how long a sound remains at a certain level (think of striking a tom, the initial smack is attack, then it decays to the resonance of the tom, how long it resonates is the sustain); 4) Release is the amount of time before the sustain stops. This is particularly important as these are also the settings on a common piece of gear called a Compressor! Understanding the envelope of a sound is key to learning how to maniuplate it.
7) Phase Cancellation: This is one of the most important concepts in home recording, especially when looking at drums. I'm putting it in this section because it matters so much. Phase Cancellation is what occurs when the same frequencies occur at different times. To put it simply, frequency amplitudes are additive - meaning if you have 2 sound waves of the same frequency, one amplitude is +4 and the other is +2, the way we percieve sound is that the frequency is +6. But a sound wave has a positive and negative amplitude as it travels (like a wave in the ocean with a peak and a swell). If the frequency then has two sources and it is 180 degrees out of phase, that means one wave is at +4 while the other is at -4. This sums to 0, or cancels out the wave. Effectively, you would hear silence. This is why micing techniques are so important, but we'll get into that later. I wanted this term at the top, and will likely mention it again.

Next we can look at the different types of options to actually record your sound!

1) Handheld/All in one/Field Recorders: I don't know if portable cassette tape recorders are still around, but that's an example of one. These are (or used to) be very popular with journalists because they were pretty decent at capturing speech. They do not fare too well with music though. Not too long ago, we saw the emergence of the digital field recorder. These are really nifty little devices. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors, and can be very affordable. They run on batteries, and have built-in microphones, and record digitally onto SD cards or harddiscs. The more simple ones have a pair of built-in condenser microphones, which may or may not be adjustable, and record onto an SD-card. They start around $99 (or less if you don't mind buying refurbished). You turn it on, record, connect the device itself or the SD card to your computer, transfer the file(s) and there is your recording! An entry-level example is the Tascam DR-05. It costs $99. It has two built in omni-directional mics, comes with a 2GB microSD card and runs on two AA batteries. It can record in different formats, the highest being 24-bit 96KHz Broadcast WAV, which is higher than DVD quality! You can also choose to record as an MP3 (32-320kbps) if you need to save space on the SD card or if you're simply going to record a speech/conference or upload it on the web later on. It's got a headphone jack and even small built-in speakers. It can be mounted onto a tripod. And it's about the size of a cell phone. The next step up (although there are of course many options that are price and feature-wise inbetween this one and the last) is a beefier device like the Zoom H4n. It's got all the same features as the Tascam DR-05 and more! It has two adjustable built-in cardioid condenser mics in an XY configuration (you can adjust the angle from a 90-120 degree spread). On the bottom of the device, there are two XLR inputs with preamps. With those, you can expand your recording possibilities with two external microphones. The preamps can send phantom power, so you can even use very nice studio mics. All 4 channels will be recorded independantly, so you can pop them onto your computer later and mix them with software. This device can also act as a USB interface, so instead of just using it as a field recorder, you can connect it directly to your computer or to a DSLR camera for HD filming. My new recommendation for this category is actually the Yamaha EAD10. It really is the best all-in-one solution for anyone that wants to record their kit audio with a great sound. It sports a kick drum trigger (mounts to the rim of the kick) with an x-y pattern set of microphones to pick up the rest of the kit sound. It also has on-board effects, lots of software integration options and smart features through its app. It really is a great solution for anyone who wants to record without reading this guide.
The TL;DR of this guide is - if it seems like too much, buy the Yamaha EAD10 as a simple but effective recording solution for your kit.

2) USB Microphones: There are actually mics that you an plug in directly to your computer via USB. The mics themselves are their own audio interfaces. These mics come in many shapes and sizes, and offer affordable solutions for basic home recording. You can record using a DAW or even something simple like the stock windows sound recorder program that's in the acessories folder of my Windows operating system. The Blue Snowflake is very affordable at $59. It can stand alone or you can attach it to your laptop or your flat screen monitor. It can record up to 44.1kHz, 16-bit WAV audio, which is CD quality. It's a condenser mic with a directional cardioid pickup pattern and has a full frequency response - from 35Hz-20kHz. It probably won't blow you away, but it's a big departure from your average built-in laptop, webcam, headset or desktop microphone. The Audio Technica AT2020 USB is a USB version of their popular AT2020 condenser microphone. At $100 it costs a little more than the regular version. The AT2020 is one of the finest mics in its price range. It's got a very clear sound and it can handle loud volumes. Other companies like Shure and Samson also offer USB versions of some of their studio mics. The AT2020 USB also records up to CD-quality audio and comes with a little desktop tripod. The MXL USB.009 mic is an all-out USB microphone. It features a 1 inch large-diaphragm condenser capsule and can record up to 24-bit 96kHz WAV audio. You can plug your headphones right into the mic (remember, it is its own audio interface) so you can monitor your recordings with no latency, as opposed to doing so with your computer. Switches on the mic control the gain and can blend the mic channel with playback audio. Cost: $399. If you already have a mic, or you don't want to be stuck with just a USB mic, you can purcase a USB converter for your existing microphone. Here is a great review of four of them.
3) Audio Recording Interfaces: You've done some reading up on this stuff... now you are lost. Welcome to the wide, wide world of Audio Interfaces. These come in all different shapes and sizes, features, sampling rates, bit depths, inputs, outputs, you name it. Welcome to the ocean, let's try to help you find land.
- An audio interface, as far as your computer is concerned, is an external sound card. It has audio inputs, such as a microphone preamp and outputs which connect to other audio devices or to headphones or speakers. The modern day recording "rig" is based around a computer, and to get the sound onto your computer, an interface is necessary. All computers have a sound card of some sort, but these have very low quality A/D Converters (analog to digital) and were not designed with any kind of sophisticated audio recording in mind, so for us they are useless and a dedicated audio interface must come into play.
- There are hundreds of interfaces out there. Most commonly they connect to a computer via USB or Firewire. There are also PCI and PCI Express-based interfaces for desktop computers. The most simple interfaces can record one channel via USB, while others can record up to 30 via firewire! All of the connection types into the computer have their advantages and drawbacks. The chances are, you are looking at USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. As far as speeds, most interfaces are in the same realm as far as speed is concerned but thunderbolt is a faster data transfer rate. There are some differences in terms of CPU load. Conflict handling (when packages collide) is handled differently. USB sends conflict resolution to the CPU, Firewire handles it internally, Thunderbolt, from what I could find, sends it to the CPU as well. For most applications, none of them are going to be superior from a home-recording standpoint. When you get up to 16/24 channels in/out simultaneously, it's going to matter a lot more.
- There are a number of things to consider when choosing an audio interface. First off your budget, number of channels you'd like to be able to record simultaneously, your monitoring system, your computer and operating system and your applications. Regarding budget, you have to get real. $500 is not going to get you a rig with the ability to multi-track a drum set covered in mics. Not even close! You might get an interface with 8 channels for that much, but you have to factor in the cost of everything, including mics, cables, stands, monitors/headphones, software, etc... Considerations: Stereo Recording or Multi-Track Recording? Stereo Recording is recording two tracks: A left and right channel, which reflects most audio playback systems. This doesn't necessarily mean you are simply recording with two mics, it means that what your rig is recording onto your computer is a single stereo track. You could be recording a 5-piece band with 16 mics/channels, but if you're recording in stereo, all you're getting is a summation of those 16 tracks. This means that in your recording software, you won't be able to manipulate any of those channels independantly after you recorded them. If the rack tom mic wasn't turned up loud enough, or you want to mute the guitars, you can't do that, because all you have is a stereo track of everything. It's up to you to get your levels and balance and tone right before you hit record. If you are only using two mics or lines, then you will have individual control over each mic/line after recording. Commonly, you can find 2 input interfaces and use a sub-mixer taking the left/right outputs and pluging those into each channel of the interface. Some mixers will output a stereo pair into a computer as an interface, such as the Allen&Heath ZED16. If you want full control over every single input, you need to multi-track. Each mic or line that you are recording with will get it's own track in your DAW software, which you can edit and process after the fact. This gives you a lot of control over a recording, and opens up many mixing options, and also many more issues. Interfaces that facilitate multitracking include Presonus FireStudio, Focusrite Scarlett interfaces, etc. There are some mixers that are also interfaces, such as the Presonus StudioLive 16, but these are very expensive. There are core-card interfaces as well, these will plug in directly to your motherboard via PCI or PCI-Express slots. Protools HD is a core-card interface and requires more hardware than just the card to work. I would recommend steering clear of these until you have a firm grasp of signal chain and digital audio, as there are more affordable solutions that will yield similar results in a home-environment.

DAW - Digital Audio Workstation

I've talked a lot about theory, hardware, signal chain, etc... but we need a way to interpret this data. First off what does a DAW do? Some refer to them as DAE's (Digital Audio Editors). You could call it a virtual mixing board , however that isn't entirely correct. DAWs allow you to record, control, mix and manipulate independant audio signals. You can change their volume, add effects, splice and dice tracks, combine recorded audio with MIDI-generated audio, record MIDI tracks and much much more. In the old days, when studios were based around large consoles, the actual audio needed to be recorded onto some kind of medium - analog tape. The audio signals passed through the boards, and were printed onto the tape, and the tape decks were used to play back the audio, and any cutting, overdubbing etc. had to be done physically on the tape. With a DAW, your audio is converted into 1's and 0's through the converters on your interface when you record, and so computers and their harddiscs have largely taken the place of reel-to-reel machines and analog tape.
Here is a list of commonly used DAWs in alphabetical order: ACID Pro Apple Logic Cakewalk SONAR Digital Performer FL (Fruity Loops) Studio (only versions 8 and higher can actually record Audio I believe) GarageBand PreSonus Studio One Pro Tools REAPER Propellerhead Reason (version 6 has combined Reason and Record into one software, so it now is a full audio DAW. Earlier versions of Reason are MIDI based and don't record audio) Propellerhead Record (see above) Steinberg Cubase Steinberg Nuendo
There are of course many more, but these are the main contenders. [Note that not all DAWs actually have audio recording capabilities (All the ones I listed do, because this thread is about audio recording), because many of them are designed for applications like MIDI composing, looping, etc. Some are relatively new, others have been around for a while, and have undergone many updates and transformations. Most have different versions, that cater to different types of recording communities, such as home recording/consumer or professional.
That's a whole lot of choices. You have to do a lot of research to understand what each one offers, what limitations they may have etc... Logic, Garageband and Digital Performer for instance are Mac-only. ACID Pro, FL Studio and SONAR will only run on Windows machines. Garageband is free and is even pre-installed on every Mac computer. Most other DAWs cost something.
Reaper is a standout. A non-commercial license only costs $60. Other DAWs often come bundled with interfaces, such as ProTools MP with M-Audio interfaces, Steinberg Cubase LE with Lexicon Interfaces, Studio One with Presonus Interfaces etc. Reaper is a full function, professional, affordable DAW with a tremendous community behind it. It's my recommendation for everyone, and comes with a free trial. It is universally compatible and not hardware-bound.
You of course don't have to purchase a bundle. Your research might yield that a particular interface will suit your needs well, but the software that the same company offers or even bundles isn't that hot. As a consumer you have a plethora of software and hardware manufacturers competing for your business and there is no shortage of choice. One thing to think about though is compatability and customer support. With some exceptions, technically you can run most DAWs with most interfaces. But again, don't just assume this, do your research! Also, some DAWs will run smoother on certain interfaces, and might experience problems on others. It's not a bad thing to assume that if you purchase the software and hardware from the same company, they're at least somewhat optimized for eachother. In fact, ProTools, until recently would only run on Digidesign (now AVID) and M-Audio interfaces. While many folks didn't like being limited to their hardware choices to run ProTools, a lot of users didn't mind, because I think that at least in part it made ProTools run smoother for everyone, and if you did have a problem, you only had to call up one company. There are many documented cases where consumers with software and hardware from different companies get the runaround:
Software Company X: "It's a hardware issue, call Hardware Company Z". Hardware Company Z: "It's a software issue, call Software Company X".
Another thing to research is the different versions of softwares. Many of them have different versions at different pricepoints, such as entry-level or student versions all the way up to versions catering to the pros. Cheaper versions come with limitations, whether it be a maximum number of audio tracks you can run simultaneously, plug-ins available or supported Plug-In formats and lack of other features that the upper versions have. Some Pro versions might require you to run certain kinds of hardware. I don't have time nor the will to do research on individual DAW's, so if any of you want to make a comparison of different versions of a specific DAW, be my guest! In the end, like I keep stressing - we each have to do our own research.
A big thing about the DAW that it is important to note is this: Your signal chain is your DAW. It is the digital representation of that chain and it is important to understand it in order to properly use that DAW. It is how you route the signal from one spot to another, how you move it through a sidechain compressor or bus the drums into the main fader. It is a digital representation of a large-format recording console, and if you don't understand how the signal gets from the sound source to your monitor (speaker), you're going to have a bad time.

Playback - Monitors are not just for looking at!

I've mentioned monitors several times and wanted to touch on these quickly: Monitors are whatever you are using to listen to the sound. These can be headphones, powered speakers, unpowered speakers, etc. The key thing here is that they are accurate. You want a good depth of field, you want as wide a frequency response as you can get, and you want NEARFIELD monitors. Unless you are working with a space that can put the monitor 8' away from you, 6" is really the biggest speaker size you need. At that point, nearfield monitors will reproduce the audio frequency range faithfully for you. There are many options here, closed back headphones, open back headphones, studio monitors powered, and unpowered (require a separate poweramp to drive the monitor). For headphones, I recommend AKG K271, K872, Sennheiser HD280 Pro, etc. There are many options, but if mixing on headphones I recommend spending some good money on a set. For Powered Monitors, there's really only one choice I recommend: Kali Audio LP-6 monitors. They are, dollar for dollar, the best monitors you can buy for a home studio, period. These things contend with Genelecs and cost a quarter of the price. Yes, they still cost a bit, but if you're going to invest, invest wisely. I don't recommend unpowered monitors, as if you skimp on the poweramp they lose all the advantages you gain with monitors. Just get the powered monitors if you are opting for not headphones.

Drum Mic'ing Guide, I'm not going to re-create the wheel.


That's all for now, this has taken some time to put together (a couple hourse now). I can answer other questions as they pop up. I used a few sources for the information, most notably some well-put together sections on the Pearl Drummers Forum in the recording section. I know a couple of the users are no longer active there, but if you see this and think "Hey, he ripped me off!", you're right, and thanks for allowing me to rip you off!

A couple other tips that I've come across for home recording:
You need to manage your gain/levels when recording. Digital is NOT analog! What does this mean? You should be PEAKING (the loudest the signal gets) around -12dB to -15dB on your meters. Any hotter than that and you are overdriving your digital signal processors.
What sound level should my master bus be at for Youtube?
Bass Traps 101
Sound Proofing 101
submitted by M3lllvar to drums [link] [comments]

The Complete NERF Blaster MOSFET Wiring Tutorial for Beginners and Pros

It’s time for an easy MOSFET wiring guide. There haven’t been too many, so I’ll add mine to the list. I’ve mainly seen the use of high-amperage micro-switches in this community, but as tech in blasters (microcontrollers, brushless motors) continues to expand and the motor-arms-race delivering new, high-draw motors to the scene, it’s time for another MOSFET guide without confusing the beginners while at the same time, enlightening the experienced modders.
This guide will be super in-depth, and will hopefully cover a ton content so you could start it off as a beginner, and come back to it as a pro, and learn something every time. No prerequisites required - just a basic understanding of electricity! For the more advanced and technical parts, a high-school level understanding of physics and chemistry may be required. Read what you understand, and skip what you don't. There will be some parts which will be intimidating to beginners, but that’s the point! There’s always something new to learn in electronics, whether that be more electronics, physics, or microcontrollers.
MOSFET
Check this guide out on my site: https://suild.com/docs/0

First off, what is a MOSFET?

A MOSFET is a type of transistor. A transistor is a switch relying on an electrical signal to allow current to flow, rather than a physical movement like a switch.
I know the first time someone told me that, I got super confused. Immediately below is a beginner friendly description of a transistor, and a the further down you go, the more technical it will get. If you understand above, that’s all you need to know about a MOSFETS’s functionality. Feel free to read more below, or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “MOSFET PINOUT”.
Let’s take a look an an example of a switch. For this example, a light switch. In its resting state, electricity will not flow - the light bulb is not on. But when you flick the switch, the light turns on - electricity is flowing. Notice how it relies on manual mechanical energy, your finger pressing on it, for the current to flow. Whats often happening in these switches is the movement of a metal piece which touches different metal things for electricity to flow as desired.
Here’s a good example of what’s happening
Now that you know how a switch works completely, let’s look at a transistor now. Remember, a MOSFET is a type of transistor, so they work exactly the same. If you didn’t already know, transistors are one of the most amazing inventions ever, on-par with fire and the wheel (not joking!). Everything computedigital = transistors. They revolutionized computing technology, and all of our computers (laptops, phones, microcontrollers, watches, calculators) are based on transistor architecture. In your Intel Core i7 processor, there are over fourteen billion transistors! For comparison, the earth is only about 25,000 miles in circumference. In your phones, transistors can be as small as seven nanometers, and the smallest ones invented are around one nanometer. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, so transistors have gotten down to the size of a few atoms across now.
Okay, enough lecture on how amazing transistors are (hint: they’re really amazing!). Let’s see how they work. Remember how a switch relies on a manual input to control the electrical behavior? Well, a transistor uses electrical input to control the electrical behavior.
Here’s a picture of a transistor
Imagine a switch which has two pins. The two pins will conduct electricity when the switch is pressed, and will not conduct electricity when the switch is not pressed. Observe the above picture of a transistor, and notice how it has three pins. Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity. We’ll call this “other pin” the signal pin, since it acts as a signal which signals when the other two pin should conduct electricity.
So transistors are like switches, but they’re awesomer. They can be MUCH smaller and MUCH faster.
Tl;dr Transistors are like switches, but are awesomer since they rely on an electrical input, rather than manual input like a switch.
Now that you know how a transistor works, it would be extremely helpful to understand the pins as well

MOSFET Pinout

A MOSFET is a transistor, and a transistor has three pins. Therefore, a MOSFET has three pins.
MOSFET Pinout
Take a look at that picture. The pins are labeled:
“Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity” is the same as “The Drain and Source will conduct electricity when the Get gets fed electricity.
You can think of the gate that acts like a gate. When the gate is open (it gets fed electricity), electricity can flow through the MOSFET.
You don’t really need to remember these fancy names, but they will be Extremely helpful for the rest of this write-up. Don't fuss too much over remembering them, the concept is much more important. The more you are exposed to the words in context, the better and faster you will understand them. Hopefully I use them enough in this write-up that you’ll know them front-and-back by the end of this.
And that’s all it is for understanding MOSFETs! I hope you completely understand how they work, and the pins. It gets a bit more technical from here on about MOSFETs, so feel free to read through it or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?”.

More technical discussion starts here.

There are two different types of MOSFETs, an “N-Channel MOSFET” and a “P-Channel MOSFET”. You can think of it like this: an N-channel MOSFET connects negative of the battery to negative of the load, and a P-channel MOSFET connects the positive of the battery to the positive of the load. Since the N-channel MOSFET connects the negatives, we call it “Low-side switching”, and the P-channel MOSFET as “High-side switching”. If you’re more familiar with BJTs, a P-channel MOSFET would be equivalent to a PNP BJT, and an N-channel to an NPN.
Although both can be used, in this build, an N-channel MOSFET will be used. Here are some advantages of N-channel MOSFETs over P-channel ones:
MOSFET is an acronym:
Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
MOS, or metal-oxide semiconductor, describes the chemical properties of the semiconductive materials which makes the MOSFET work. Recall from the media and chemistry class that a semiconductor includes elements such as Silicon and Germanium. Many transistors rely on Silicon chemistry, with special enhancement substances injected, or ‘doped’, for enhanced performance.
This metal-oxide layer insulates the input voltage from the output current as well, so the input voltage interacts with the output current through electromagnetic fields, as described below.
FET, or field-effect transistor, describes the type of transistor. A more ‘traditional’ transistor, such as a BJT, works using current, assuming the threshold voltage has been exceeded, to determine its conductive behavior, as the current flowing through the base directly interacts with the current flowing through the collector and emitter. While a BJT’s conducive behavior is more reliant on current, a FET’s conductive behavior is more reliant on voltage.
FETs work on electric fields, as described in the name. When an electric potential difference between the gate and source is observed, an electric field is created. Since we are using an enhancement mode FET, rather than a depletion mode FET, pulling the gate-source voltage (Vgs) to high will turn the FET on, so current can flow through the drain and source. The strength of the electric field formed is proportional to Vgs, and the stronger the electric field, the lower the internal resistance of the device. Therefore, a input higher voltage will result in better current flow of the device.
Remember, more internal resistance, or resistance between the drain and source (Rds) means the less energy goes to your load, so a decrease in efficiency. A higher resistance will also result in more heat generation, and more heat is often not a good thing. A higher junction temperature also results in a higher resistance, and this higher resistance results in more heat generation, and so on. It’s like an infinite loop. Extremely high junction temperatures (Tj) can also destroy the internal chemistry of the FET. The MOSFET linked below in the parts section can handle up to 175C, so you won’t need to worry about heat too much in your build. The chemical and electrical properties of a FET will vary a little bit based on Tj, so check your datasheets on that. If you’re reading this part, I assume you have the technical capability to be able to read data sheets. Luckily, most MOSFETs include a heat-sink integrated into the device, as well as decently high operating temperature thresholds.
Ideal Vgs for MOSFETs are between eight and twelve volts, depending on the specific model. Check the data sheets. Voltage from your LiPo battery, whether that be 2S or 3S, works perfectly fine. Depending on the particular MOSFET, Rds may be as low as a few mΩ, at an ideal state. The MOSFET linked in this write-up has an Rds of around 2mΩ.
To summarize MOSFETs:

Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?

All this fancy talk about MOSFETs, and I didn’t even explain what’s so good about them.
When we modify blasters, we often do a few things:
  • Battery replacement with LiPos
  • Motor replacement
  • Rewire with 16 AWG or 18 AWG wiring
  • Switch replacement
One of the above modifications results in or is a result of the avalanching modification requirements. Motor replacement calls for a higher ability of discharge from a battery = battery replacement. Battery replacement = higher current = rewire + switch replacement.
Let’s take a look at the few options we have for controlling our high-amperage circuits:
  • High-amperage microswitches
  • Relays
  • MOSFETs

High-amperage Microswitches

Top of the line motors, at the moment, may draw close to 50A at stall. The highest rated microswitches in in the community I’ve seen are 21A microswitches. 50A > 21A. But high end motors only draw 50A for a fraction of a second, so the switches should be safe, right? For now. I’ve never heard of anyone damaging a 21A switch from high-draw motors anyways.
But in the time of a motor-arms-race, more motors are being release, and these motors are getting more powerful. This means higher current draw. Soon, even our 21A switches won’t be able to keep up with all these motors. But MOSFETs will. Well, they already do. They are currently used today to control high-power appliances, including street lights and airplanes.
High-amperage switches don’t fit directly into blasters. You’ll need to dremel out a lot of the stock switch mounting area, orient the switch correctly, and then adhere it into place. You also have possibly 100A of current running through your grip, millimeters away from your hand. That doesn't sound safe.
Tl;dr Requires shell modifications, not future-proof

Relays

This is a relay
Although I haven’t personally seen the use of relays too much in builds, they are another basic option to control high-draw motors. They are also quite advantageous over high-amperage microswitches.
Relays are literally switches controlled by a magnet. But that magnet, known as an electromagnet, can be turned on and off. So there is a physical moving part which toggles position based on whether the electromagnet is on or not. A low power signal controlling the electromagnet will determine whether current can flow, similar to a transistoMOSFET.
Relays can be advantageous over high-amperage microswitches since shell modification may not be necessary. The stock NERF switch may be used as a ‘signal’ to control electricity flow through the relay.
Although relays are reign supreme over high-amperage switches in terms of shell modifications, they fall short in the same ways. Some of the highest-power relays, automotive relays (yep, the stuff used in cars), can get quite expensive and are rated for only 30A - 40A.

Here’s why MOSFETs are better

  • Zero shell modification. Can be wired to rest in any part of the shell.
  • Can handle higher current (the one I’ve linked can handle up to 343A under the right circumstances)
  • Cost. I see high-amperage switches costing around $5, and around the same for high-amperage relays. A MOSFET fulfilling all the needs of the highest-end blaster can cost around $3, and you could get away with some MOSFETs costing under $1, depending on your setup.
  • A lot faster. After all, transistors are used in your 3GHz computers. (will be further explained in technical section below)
  • You sound more pro: “Yeah, in my Rapidstrike, I’m running an IRLB3034PbF N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels, and an IRFZ44N N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels. Both are hooked up to a 10 kilo-ohm quarter-watt pulldown resistor to combat electrostatic interference, and a 1N5408 flyback rectifier diode to suppress transient voltage spikes resulting from the collapsing electromagnetic field of the motor’s coil” vs “I’m running a 21A microswitch. I like how it’s super clicky click click click”.
  • Afterburners. You don't want six motors worth of current running through your wimpy microswitch.
Cons of MOSFET: May be electrically complex for beginners. This write-up changes that, so there is no excuse not to use MOSFETs.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are better.
Now that you know why MOSFETs are objectively superior, feel free to go onto the technical part where. If not, skip ahead to the next section: CTRL + F - “How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together”

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I’ll be going over pulse-width-modulation (PWM) here, and specifically, its relevance to tech in blasters. When I say tech in blasters, I don’t mean 3D printed components or wiring looms, I mean programmed microcontrollers, such as in Eli Wu’s builds, Project FDL, Ammo Counters by AmmoCounter.com, and my upcoming Smart Blaster kits.
So what is PWM? Other than sounding super fancy, it’s also super useful. First, I need to discuss the difference between digital and analog components.
What does it mean, digital? Well, I’m sure we’ve all heard of it, “The digital age” and stuff like that. Digital often induces imagery of computers, and binary, 1’s and 0’s. That’s exactly what digital describes, binary. Digital means involving only two values. For example, your light would be digital, since it only has two values, ON and OFF, or the status of your phone power being at 100% battery, TRUE, or FALSE. Your phone is either at 100% battery, or it’s not at 100% battery. Tying this to computers, remember how computers only “see” in binary, 1, and 0: 101010001001. Binary only has two values, 1, and 0, therefore, it is called a digital value.
What about analog? While digital pertains to states which only have two values, analog pertains to states which may have more than one value. For example, the temperature. There are many different values the weather can be, 78F, 92F, or even 23F. Those are only three, but there are an unlimited number of different temperatures (mathematically, not physically) possible when we include decimals. Another example would be the speed of your car. It could be going at 60mph, or 61mph, or 73mph, or 5mph.
Tl;dr Digital = only two values (light - ON or OFF), analog = more than two values (speed - 60mph, 25mph, 3mph, etc.)
Now, what about our motors in our blasters? What would best describe their output state - analog, or digital? Well, in our blasters, they really only have two states, ON, or OFF. But motors, like a car, can be analog. They can be off, on, in the middle, and anything in between.
So we know it is physically possible to control the speed of our blaster’s motors. This yields us a variable control of dart velocity, power consumption, and rate of fire (Hint Hint an upcoming Smart Blaster kit). If we want our darts traveling at 130fps instead of the maximum 150fps for confusion tactics against our enemies, we can crank down on speed of the motors a bit. If we want to shoot our Rapidstrike a bit slower in terms of darts/sec, to conserve ammo without burst-fire (Hint Hint another upcoming Smart Blaster kit) then we could slow down the pusher motor a bit. And we can control these speeds using a microcontroller.
A microcontroller is just like a computer, but quite a lot smaller than your laptops. They're also mounted on ICs. Some examples include an Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20, but NOT a Raspberry Pi. A Raspberry Pi as a microprocessor. An Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20are NOT microprocessors. An Arduino and a Teensy is NOT a microcontroller or a microprocessor, it simply houses a microcontroller. DON’T call an Arduino a microprocessor, because it’s not. Call it a microcontroller, since it’s basically a shell for one. I’m super anal about these terms but I don't know why lol.
But explained above is how computers are digital, and motor speed is analog. Analog != digital, so how do we do this? Well, there’s this fancy thing called PWM. It’s basically just returning an analog output, such as motor velocity, from a digital device, such as a computemicrocontroller. It works by toggling output power super super fast, sometimes many kHz, depending on the device outputting the power.
Let’s say we have a 10W power source. We’re only talking about power here, but remember Power = Voltage * Current, Watts= Volts * Amps. PWM controls power. And a circuit that looks like this. Notice how the power source goes through a PWM device, and the PWM device then outputs to a motor. The PWM device is a digital device.
PWM Circuit
If we leave the PWM device at high the entire time, then the output will be at 10W. If we leave the PWM device at low the entire time, then the output will be at 0W. If we toggle power (power ON and OFF, a digital value, compatible with the computer) in the PWM device so fast that on average, 50% of the time, the power is high (10W), and the rest 50% of the time, the power is low (0W) it will average out at 5W, so the output will be 5W. Now, what if we toggle the PWM so fast that on average, 70% of the time, the power is high, and 30% of the time, the power is low?
It will average out at 7W, so the output will be 7W.
Notice how I’m getting an analog value (10W, 0W, 5W, 7W, and anything in between) out of a digital device (PWM device). Now, we can replace the PWM device with something like an Arduino, and accomplish the same thing.
I won’t be going over too much how PWM works, but I hope you understand the basics. Now let’s tie this back into MOSFETs.
Recall how power must be toggled in the PWM device “super super” fast. When working with Arduino, this will be around 600 Hz, or 600 times a second. With dedicated PWM devices, this can get up into the Kilohertz, or even Megahertz. Can you move your finger on the trigger that fast? If you could, then theoretically, you would be able to achieve PWM with your hands. Unfortunately, the switch can’t. Even with a relay, PWM can’t be practically achieved. Relays take about 20 milliseconds to change state, so only about 50 Hz. Not even close to fast enough. So we need to switch from electromechanical to electrochemical.
Here’s where the MOSFET comes into play. Remember how the MOSFET is a transistor, and transistors are in computers. Consumer computers can clock as fast as a a few Gigahertz, or a few billion times per second. Yep, that’s how fast transistors are. So MOSFETs are more than suitable, because of their speed, for variable motor control.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are so fast you can do analog outputs with them.

How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together

Almost time for wiring! I truly believe the concepts behind how this build works is much more important than how to assemble it. A robot can assemble this, but can’t understand the concepts. You can do both.
Let’s combine all the concepts of the transistor, MOSFET, and MOSFET pinout together to create a basic operational diagram of the circuit.
First, the MOSFET needs some sort of electrical signal to turn on. This signal will come from a switch, any switch can be used, but I use the stock switch. Super little current will flow through the switch, so you won’t need a huge 21A switch. That’s what’s so great about a MOSFET setup, the stock switch can be reused, so zero shell modification is necessary.
Signal Diagram
Now, this electrical signal needs to go into the MOSFET, to the Gate pin. You can see in the diagram above that when the switch is pressed, the gate is fed electricity, so electricity can flow through the other two pins of the MOSFET, the drain and source.
Source-Drain Diagram
Now, let's look at the complete diagram. The Signal Diagram has just been expanded upon. Now, when the switch is pressed and the MOSFET allows electricity to flow through the drain and source, we see that the entire circuit is complete! Positive of the battery goes into the load, and the load is connected to ground/negative. A full circuit!
It’s about to get a bit technical here. I’ll go over the functionality of a the resistor and diode, it’s pretty complex stuff. You know the drill to skip: “Parts and Tools Required” This will be the last technical section.

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I will discuss two components here, why they’re needed: the resistor, and the diode. The diode is much more complicated in its functionality.
The Resistor
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics:Schematics of Pull-Down Resistor
This resistor is known as a “pull-down” resistor, since it connects between the gate of the MOSFET and ground. When working with electronics, you will see “pull-up” and pull-down resistors a lot. pull-up/down resistors are used to ensure given no other input, a circuit assumes a default value. In the case of this build, since a pull-down resistor is being used, the default value is pulled to low. This makes sense, since when the MOSFET is off, the Vgs (input voltage, or potential difference between the gate and source), is zero.
But why would we need this pull-down resistor if no current is flowing to the gate when the switch isn't pressed? Well that’s the thing. It’s not that simple. The voltage as the gate is said to be “floating”. This means the voltage could be many different values, and that will of course mess up how the MOSFET will behave. A small input voltage, say, from the electrostatics of your finger, could be all that’s needed to turn the MOSFET on. This isn’t good, so we use the pull-down resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET is off, it’s off for good.
The Diode
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics: Schematics of Flyback Diode
This diode is known as a “flyback diode”
Motors are extremely interesting works of techonology. Simply put, it’s a converter between mechanical energy and electrical energy, and it can work in both directions: as a generator, and as a motor. When the motors act as a generator, a voltage in the reverse direction is formed. Voltage is the force driving the current, so we also call it electromotive force, or EMF. Because the voltage is in the reverse direction, we call it counter-EMF or back EMF (BEMF).
Okay, let’s go over that again.
  • Voltage = electromotive force = EMF
  • A motor may also act as a generator.
  • When a motor acts as a generator, it will generate a voltage in the reverse direction of current flow.
  • This voltage in the reverse direction has a special name: counter EMF or back EMF (BEMF)
So when does the motor act as a generator? Well, in real-world applications, this is used in power plants, both nuclear, coal, and natural gas. They’re all taking some sort of mechanical energy, and converting it to electrical energy.
Remember! A motor and generator are the same. The only difference is the direction of the conversion of energy.
In media, we’ve seen someone pedaling on a stationary bicycle to power a light bulb. This is a generatomotor. A generatomotor apparatus is attached to the bike in a way so when the pedal is turned, it turns the shaft of the motogenerator. It’s converting mechanical energy (the biker moving his legs to pedal the pedals) into electrical energy (to power the light bulb). If I were to power the same generatomotor apparatus using a battery, the pedals will actually turn. In this case, I’m turning the motogenerator apparatus into a motor: a converter between electrical energy (stored in the battery) into mechanical energy (to move the pedals).
So in a blaster, power from the battery is going to the motors when the rev trigger is pressed. The motor is acting like a motor, converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. When the rev trigger isn’t pressed, the power from the battery is cut off, so no more power from the battery is going into the motor. But, the we observe the motor is still spinning. It may not be spinning as fast as when the rev trigger was being pressed, but the motors are still spinning. And what happens to a motor when it’s spinning, but not powered? It’s a generator. The motor is converting the mechanical energy (flywheels spinning) into electrical energy. We can harness this energy to charge our batteries (this is how some vehicles like the Toyota Prius work), but a more complex circuit will be necessary, and it won’t be too effective. Also recall that the energy being generated is BEMF.
The concept of a motogenerator is very important to describe the functionality of the flyback diode.
This is a Diode
Notice how the anode, or positive part, of the diode is connected to Vcc. This is so current doesn’t flow through the diode when the motor is on. But, when the motor is powered off, a BEMF is created. Now what was previously the negative of the motor becomes the positive of the power source, since it’s acting as a generator and the EMF created is in the opposite direction, hence BEMF. Now, the negative of the motogenerator is connected to the cathode, or negative part, of the diode, and the positive is connected to the anode. Current can now flow through the diode, but only when the motogenerator is generating BEMF. That’s why the orientation of the diode matters.
Now this is where many people get confused, myself previously included. They think that this BEMF may produce high spikes in voltage, which may damage the MOSFET. So, a flyback diode is required to take care of those high spikes in voltage. This is not entirely correct.
To debunk this theory, we need to remember that the BEMF ONLY from the motor turning into a generator generating voltage from the flywheel’s inertia will never exceed the battery voltage. The voltage generated only by the freewheeling of a motor will not exceed that of the supply.
But, the BEMF consists of two components: freewheeling voltage, and flyback voltage. The flyback voltage is what can damage the MOSFET, since they can be extremely high and unpredictable.
The source of this flyback voltage results from the functionality of the motor. Motors use coils. If you’ve ever opened one up, accidentally or purposely, you'll see coils. Some motors have permanent magnets, and others have electromagnets, which means more coils. When current passes through coils, it creates a magnetic field. This is called induction, as described in Faraday’s law. Okay, induction, no big deal. It’s just how a motor operates. When the circuit is open, no more magnetic field is being induced, since the flow of current has stopped. But a magnetic field already exists from the previous flow of current, and according to the first law of Thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed. This energy in the field can’t be destroyed, so it needs to go somewhere, so it goes back into the coil. This collapsing magnetic field feeds back into the coil, or inductor, and it become the source in the circuit. This “inductive spike” can generate high voltages, and this high voltage is what we protect our MOSFET from using a flyback diode.
Yum physics!
Tl;dr Resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET should be off, it is off. Diode to protect MOSFET from high voltages from the motor

Parts and Tools Required

This is already page 16 on the Google Docs, and I just rambled about MOSFETs that entire time. Let’s get started with some legit write-up. Here are the parts required. Don't skip out on any part just because you don’t know what it does, because you’ll blow stuff up.
  • 1x MOSFET. I recommend a IRLB3034PBF as an all-purpose MOSFET which will work for any motor setup. You could also get away with a IRFZ44N as with a lower-draw setup. (IRFZ44N also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in higher quantities) - $3 for an IRLB3034PBF
  • 10kΩ (10,000Ω) resistor. Can be higher, like a 15kΩ, or 47kΩ. Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) - $0.10 for one ($0.40 for ten, super bulk discounts)
  • 1N540x Rectifier Diode (0 < x <= 8; x = 8 is “strongest” and costs the same prices as 0 < x <= 7) Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) ($0.25 for one, also offers bulk discounts)
  • Wire 16 AWG - 18 AWG for motors, literally any wire (stock NERF wire will work) for MOSFET signal. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Heat shrink tubing. MOSFET pins are super close together, you don’t want to short anything out. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Stock NERF microswitch (come in your blaster, you can recycle it - FREE)
Total cost: $4.35

Tools

  • Wiring tools: Soldering Iron + solder, all that good stuff
  • I Highly recommend a multimeter for testing and debugging as well as a solder sucker for any mistakes on the tiny pins of the MOSFET. A cheap multimeter can be found for around $20, and a cheap soldersucker can cost around $1 from China. These are not required.
I recommend buying all electronics from Digi-Key. They are a trustworthy electronics distributor, I’ve been shopping with them for years, and you won’t run into any knock-offs exploding in your face. Also offer great selection and prices.
Buy from China only if you know what you’re doing. You’ll save some money when buying from China, but of course it will take longer. I’ve bought thousands of electronics from China, just make sure to read datasheets and product descriptions.
Also note how many of the electronics come in kits with many different values, and a decent quantity of each value. I would recommend purchasing these kits if you plan on continuing to get more in depth into electronics, as these are basic parts which will be used throughout electronics.

Wiring

Okay, here comes the fun part! A basic understanding of how the circuit works is greatly beneficial when it comes to wiring. Please look it over so you don’t explode any MOSFETs.
Here are some wiring diagrams to wire everything together properly, once you’ve gathered all the required tools and parts.
Tips:
  • Remember to wire your diode in correctly! You’ll know it’s facing the wrong way or wired incorrectly if the motors aren’t spinning when the rev trigger is pressed, and/or if the diode gets warm.
  • MOSFET shouldn’t get hot when testing. If it does, double check your wiring.
  • If the MOSFET legs are too close together to solder, feel free to bend the legs. You may also bend the legs back when you’re done. They’re easier to bend up/down than left/right. When I was first starting out, I bent the legs like this: http://i.imgur.com/B2bCHLW.jpg
  • Tin the legs of the MOSFET before soldering. It makes life so much easier.
  • Feel free to cut the pins of the MOSFET as well. Just make sure there’s still enough to solder onto them.
  • Since the resistor’s legs are so long, I like to wire it on my MOSFET like this: (Step 1) (Step 2) (STEP 3) . Notice how the legs of the resistors wrap around the MOSFET’s pins.
  • When using fatter wire, it may get tricky to solder them onto the pins. I recommending physically connecting the wires in relation to the pins. For example, the right pin would have the wire soldered to the right edge of the pin, and the left pin would have the wire soldered onto the left edge o the pin. You don't need to solder all of the wires directly on top of each pin.
  • Heat shrink all connections!
  • Test with a few AAs first. Sometimes, two or three might not be enough. You might need a few more. Don't damage your LiPo.
Close up your blaster and

You’re all done!

Final Notes

Whoo! Finally done. It sure took me a long time to make this, and I hope it takes you a long time to read and understand the concepts here. If I have made any mistakes in terminology or concepts, or you need something clarified, please do notify me! as I am still learning.

Useful Links

Video Tutorial: One day
Imgur Album with all the images: http://imgur.com/a/F82Gk
A Google Doc of this: https://goo.gl/8rX1dB
Read this on my website: http://suild.com/docs/0
MOSFET Boards: https://suild.com/shop/0
To learn more cool stuff, check these out. No Wikipedia links since my school says they’re evil and because they can oftentimes be too technical for beginners, and it’s usually the first search result:
What is a MOSFET?
How does a MOSFET work? (Title says Transistor, but video describes a MOSFET)
Controlling High-Current Loads
BJT vs. MOSFET
P-Channel vs N-Channel MOSFET
PWM
Arduino vs. Microcontroller vs. Microprocsessor
Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors
Flyback Diode
BEMF
More on BEMF
BEMF vs Flyback Voltage
If there are any topics you want covered in-depth by a tutorial like this, leave a comment on it! I do mainly electronics and coding, to too much hardware stuff. Here are some future tutorials I have in mind:
  • Select-fire (toggling fire modes with a joystick lol)
  • Motor braking
  • Tachometer (this will be pretty complicated, using concepts discussed in the flyback diode portion. Will require math.)
They will probably be write-ups such as this one, since my video production quality sucks :P
It took a good amount of time to make this twenty-two-page long document on Google Docs, so any feedback - on content, writing style, diagrams, etc. - would be greatly appreciated! Thanks so much for reading this much!
EDIT: Formatting, links, Google Doc link, link to website
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GET > The Jet Set Club Review, Download The Jet Set Club System Now

Does Harlod Turner’s The Jet Set Club Review Really Work? Is it Risky? How Easy is The Jet Set Club Software to Use? Get Answers to All….
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This is because it has used a system of bets testing before it was every made public. The accuracy is set at 80% and their statistics show that they bring in around 185% of their daily costs. This is also because they have a dedicated support team in place that you can get access to when you buy in to The Jet Set Club.
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4) Spending less than the time it requires to chow down lunch you could start earning money and enormous profit margins.
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6) Leave it to the Round-the-clock support to help you through any problems you have any time your trading too! What I Didn’t Like about The Jet Set Club
1) There are no guarantees on how much money you can actually make. This all depends on your starting deposit, how many trades you make and what the signal probability rate is.
2) You have to meet the terms and conditions to get the loss insurance, although these are fair.
On 10th Oct 2014, I had deposited $250 and activated the system
2014-10-13_1654
On 13th Oct 2014, I have $3,449 into my account balance
Bottom Line:-
If you are ready to start making money online, there has never been a better opportunity than now. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours looking for the next hot tip, never being able to get focused, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not making money online, you should probably leave this page right now and get back to that strategy.
The Jet Set Club is recommended! I don’t recommend many products however I can say that I AM recommending The Jet Set Club. This product teaches you exactly how to make money with a unique way and teaches the same strategies that I am currently using to make up to $1000 a day. If you buy this product and start implementing what Harlod Turner teaches you I have no doubts that you’ll make money.
The Jet Set Club works and it’s not a scam. It comes with a 100% money-back guarantee. This is what works for me. If it doesn’t work for you, you can ask for a refund. So you’ve got nothing to lose. Overall, it is well worth its price. Highly recommended! You won’t regret it!
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With an emphasis on providing the most excellent customer services and guidance through every step even if you are new to the trading world and had no experience before, this software really helps you out to gain your experience through online competition with other traders. Millionaire Society System links trading signals through a communication network which is based on Brad Marshall behavior and conditions. It traces, analyze and foretell lucrative trades, over 120 times regularly.
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The The Millionaire Society software is created and is designed to make huge profits from binary options trading simply by the analysis of the signals in the market. When the signal shows that it is the right time to trade, it does so thus earning the highest profit. The website shows that it is quite easy to download the software, just a click away, as easy as the ABC. An initial investment of $200 is required from the user which makes it a little setback, but considering the incredible profits going to be earned this value is nothing. A user has to use the software to believe it, after all belief is in seeing. Brad Marshall claims that earnings up to $400 can be made every day and that too without any effort. He does not say that only the amount mentioned is the limit, but this is the minimum amount a user can earn each day.
Pro’s:
Con’s
Bottom Line:
The Millionaire Society is definitely a must have product if you want to make money from trading Binary Options. You should be aware that forex trading is a hugely profitable Brad Marshallet and it is getting bigger and bigger. By using this The Millionaire Society system and software, it save your time to quickly profit from trading. This is really make you fast money. If you struggle to generate any income online, you should give this a try.
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The Covert Society Review -Thinking Of Buying ? Don't !

The Covert Society Review- Welcome in The Covert Society Review By Geroge Cox. Does The Covert Society Work or Scam? What's The Covert Society Software All About?
Product Name : The Covert Society
Product Author : Geroge Cox
Niche : Binary Options
Bonus Url :
Note: This is not the The Covert Society website, just a personal review of the product by Geroge Cox. To be taken directly to the The Covert Society website, Click Here.
The Covert Society is the new binary options trading software created by Geroge Cox . After personally using this software to make many successful trades, I have been able to make over $10,000 in the last two weeks from using this system. If you haven’t ever traded Binary Options before, it is much easier than you think. All you need to do is create your account, load up a few bucks into your account, then start watching the market. When you feel the time is right to make your moves, then you make them.
Step 1: Create Your Free The Covert Society Account
Step 2: After Creating Your Account, You’ll Then Be Taken To An Order Confirmation Page, Where You’ll Lock In Your Spot With The Software
Step 3: Enter The Members Area, And Follow The Simple 3 Step Process & Start Making Your Trades
Why I Love This System Besides That It’s Free
There are a lot of Binary Options trading software programs hitting the market right now, and I use many of them for a variety of reasons. The Covert Society is my favourite because it allows me to make money on autopilot by setting up rules for my trading, so it works 24 hours a day 7 days a week. I set up the software with certain stop losses, interest rates, how much to trade, & how long to trade, and then let it run and spend money based on my budget for the day. The great thing about this system is that it is free to get started, and anyone can join, but this isn’t going to be the case for long. is a buddy of mine and he is only allowing a certain amount of people to use the software before he sells it or takes it public.
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Con’s - The Covert Society Review- 100% foolproof success cannot be guaranteed, but over 80% of people have success with this Must have computer or internet access Must have about an hour a day (No something for nothing here)
Conclusion - The Covert Society Review- The Covert Society is a great tool for anyone interested in trading binary options with minimum risk, maximum profits and the least amount of effort. Try this fully automated robot risk free, and discover the thrills and opportunities of binary option trading! So, What are you waiting for? Go ahead and download you copy of The Covert Society software... The Covert Society Review-
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Theory Of Wealth Review 2015 - Is Theory Of Wealth SCAM Or LEGIT? Unique Binary Options Trading Formula Based On The Fibonacci Sequence. The Truth About Theory Of Wealth By Professor Pranav Gupta And Gordon Stewart Review

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Theory Of Wealth Description:
Name: Theory Of Wealth
Niche: Binary Options.
Professor Pranav Gupta has recently won the Fields Medal in Mathematics, the highest global award in Mathematics given only once in every 4 years. Gupta Team consists of only a few professional brokers introduced to Pranav Gupta's award winning trading formula based on Fibonacci sequence!
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Theory Of Wealth Binary Options Trading Strategy
Base the Theory Of Wealth trading method. After you see it working, you can start to execute your technique with routine sized lots. This strategy will pay off in time. Every Forex binary options trader should choose an account type that is in accordance with their needs and expectations. A bigger account does not imply a bigger profit potential so it is a great concept to start little and gradually add to your account as your returns increase based upon the trading choices you make.
Binary Options Trading
To assist you trade binary options properly, it is essential to have an understanding behind the fundamentals of Binary Options Trading. Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based on the perceived value of 2 currencies pairs to one another, and is influenced by the political stability of the country, inflation and interest rates among other things. Keep this in mind as you trade and learn more about binary options to maximize your learning experience.
Theory Of Wealth Summary
In summary, there are some obvious ideas that have actually been tested with time, in addition to some more recent strategies. that you might not have thought about. Ideally, as long as you follow what we suggest in this article you can either get started with trading with Theory Of Wealth or improve on exactly what you have currently done.
Professor Pranav Gupta is a ingenious Indian mathematician, who had invented a formula that allows ordinary people to earn money by trading binary options. The Secret is that professor Gupta has trained a very small group of SuperBrokers who have obliged to use his secret formula only to help others. In the end viewers learn the names of Gupta Team brokers who will show the inexperienced traders how to trade successfully!
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Auto Binary Signals Review-Binary Options Trading Signals ... AMAZING TRADING SIGNALS 2018 - success trading - binary options strategy 2018 Best Binary Options Trading Strategy - Best Way To Make Up To $5,000 Every Day BINARY OPTIONS STRATEGY - Easy Binary Options Strategy 2020. Final Signals Review - Top Rated Binary Options Trading Signal

Automated binary option trading is utilized a lot, to divide large trades into several smaller trades to be able to manage market risk and impact, by mutual funds, pension funds, investment banks, and other institutional traders. You can also check the latest news on Cryptocurrency Investments, Crypto/Bitcoin Scams and Forex Reviews. The most popular binary options broker is IQ Option. For a $10 minimum deposit and $1 minimum investment, you are good to go with this binary options trading platform. Additionally, it allows you to try out a $10,000 demo account to get a real feel of its features. We have compared the best regulated binary options brokers and platforms in July 2020 and created this top list. Every broker and platform has been personally reviewed by us to help you find the best binary options platform for both beginners and experts. Read our trusted reviews of the Top Rated Binary Options Signals providers of 2019. Monitoring all the binary options markets is requires much time and knowledge of binary Options trading which most beginning traders (as well as seasoned binary options traders) simply don’t have the time for. Signals365.com is a binary options signals platform that delivers browser-based signals that work across your computer, mobile or tablet, just like the infamous Binary Option Robot. The signals themselves are based on successful trading strategies that the Signals65.com team developed in-house.

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Auto Binary Signals Review-Binary Options Trading Signals ...

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