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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Mining and Dogecoin - Some FAQs

Hey shibes,
I see a lot of posts about mining lately and questions about the core wallet and how to mine with it, so here are some facts!
Feel free to add information to that thread or correct me if I did any mistake.

You downloaded the core wallet

Great! After a decade it probably synced and now you are wondering how to get coins? Bad news: You don't get coins by running your wallet, even running it as a full node. Check what a full node is here.
Maybe you thought so, because you saw a very old screenshot of a wallet, like this (Version 1.2). This version had a "Dig" tab where you can enter your mining configuration. The current version doesn't have this anymore, probably because it doesn't make sense anymore.

You downloaded a GPU/CPU miner

Nice! You did it, even your antivirus system probably went postal and you started covering all your webcams... But here is the bad news again: Since people are using ASIC miners, you just can't compete with your CPU hardware anymore. Even with your more advanced GPU you will have a hard time. The hashrate is too high for a desktop PC to compete with them. The blocks should be mined every 1 minute (or so) and that's causing the difficulty to go up - and we are out... So definitly check what is your hashrate while you are mining, you would need about 1.5 MH/s to make 1 Doge in 24 hours!

Mining Doge

Let us start with a quote:
"Dogecoin Core 1.8 introduces AuxPoW from block 371,337. AuxPoW is a technology which enables miners to submit work done while mining other coins, as work on the Dogecoin block chain."
- langerhans
What does this mean? You could waste your hashrate only on the Dogecoin chain, probably find never a block, but when, you only receive about 10.000 Dogecoins, currently worth about $25. Or you could apply your hashrate to LTC and Doge (and probably even more) at the same time. Your change of solving the block (finding the nonce) is your hashrate divided by the hashrat in sum - and this is about the same for Doge and LTC. This means you will always want to submit your work to all chains available!

Mining solo versus pool

So let's face it - mining solo won't get you anywhere, so let's mine on a pool! If you have a really bad Hashrate, please consider that: Often you need about $1 or $2 worth of crypto to receive a payout (without fees). This means, you have to get there. With 100 MH/s on prohashing, it takes about 6 days, running 24/7 to get to that threshold. Now you can do the math... 1 MH/s = 1000 KH/s, if you are below 1 MH/s, you probably won't have fun.

Buying an ASIC

You found an old BTC USB-miner with 24 GH/s (1 GH/s = 1000 MH/s) for $80 bucks - next stop lambo!? Sorry, bad news again, this hashrate is for SHA-256! If you want to mine LTC/Doge you will need a miner using scrypt with quite lower numbers on the hashrate per second, so don't fall for that. Often when you have a big miner (= also loud), you get more Hashrate per $ spent on the miner, but most will still run on a operational loss, because the electricity is too expensive and the miners will be outdated soon again. Leading me to my next point...

Making profit

You won't make money running your miner. Just do the math: What if you would have bougth a miner 1 year ago? Substract costs for electricity and then compare to: What if you just have bought coins. In most cases you would have a greater profit by just buying coins, maybe even with a "stable" coin like Doges.

Cloud Mining

Okay, this was a lot of text and you are still on the hook? Maybe you are desperated enough to invest in some cloud mining contract... But this isn't a good idea either, because most of such contracts are scams based on a ponzi scheme. You often can spot them easy, because they guarantee way to high profits, or they fake payouts that never happened, etc.
Just a thought: If someone in a subway says to you: Give me $1 and lets meet in one year, right here and I give you $54,211,841, you wouldn't trust him and if some mining contract says they will give you 5% a day it is basically the same.
Also rember the merged mining part. Nobody would offer you to mine Doges, they would offer you to buy a hashrate for scrypt that will apply on multiple chains.

Alternative coins

Maybe try to mine a coin where you don't have ASICs yet, like Monero and exchange them to Doge. If somebody already tried this - feel free to add your thoughts!

Folding at Home (Doge)

Some people say folding at home (FAH - https://www.dogecoinfah.com/) still the best. I just installed the tool and it says I would make 69.852 points a day, running on medium power what equates to 8 Doges. It is easy, it was fun, but it isn't much.
Thanks for reading
_nformant
submitted by _nformant to dogecoin [link] [comments]

[Part - 39] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Spanish Decorative Ironwork by Luis Labarta
  2. Decorative Iron and Metalwork by R. Goodwin-Smith
  3. 1920s Fashions from B. Altman & Company by Altman & Co.
  4. "Precious Stones by Vol. 1" by Max Bauer
  5. Old-Time Men and Women Vignettes in Full Color by Carol Belanger Grafton
  6. The Book of Diamonds by Joan Y. Dickinson
  7. Decorative Antique Ironwork by Henry R. d’Allemagne
  8. Those Were the Days: Weird and Wacky Ads of Yesteryear by Floyd Clymer
  9. A Short History of Costume & Armour by Francis M. Kelly
  10. The History of Underclothes by C. Willett Cunnington
  11. Iron Horses by E. P. Alexander
  12. Early American Decorating Techniques by Mariette Paine Slayton
  13. "Ancient Egyptian by Mesopotamian & Persian Costume" by Mary G. Houston
  14. Men's Fashion Illustrations from the Turn of the Century by Mitchell Co.
  15. American Silversmiths and Their Marks by Stephen G. C. Ensko
  16. Ornamental Ironwork by A. Durenne
  17. The Corset and the Crinoline by W. B. Lord
  18. Ancient Carpenters' Tools by Henry C. Mercer
  19. Victorian Fashion in America by Kristina Harris
  20. Full-Color Sourcebook of French Fashion by Pauquet Frères
  21. Rings for the Finger by George Frederick Kunz
  22. Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money by Q. David Bowers
  23. Making Costume Jewelry: An Easy & Complete Step by Step Guide by Janet Evans
  24. Old Car Detective by Bill Sherk
  25. Bicycles by Archibald Sharp
  26. Early Motorcycles by Victor W. Page
  27. 80 Godey's Full-Color Fashion Plates by JoAnne Olian
  28. The Art Nouveau Style by Stephan Tschudi Madsen
  29. Western World Costume by Carolyn G. Bradley
  30. Everyday Fashions of the Twenties by Stella Blum
  31. "Victorian Fashions and Costumes from Harper's Bazar by 1867-1898" by Stella Blum
  32. "Victorian and Edwardian Fashions from ""La Mode Illustrée""" by JoAnne Olian
  33. Chinese Domestic Furniture in Photographs and Measured Drawings by Gustav Ecke
  34. Art Deco Decorative Ironwork by Henri Clouzot
  35. Pictorial Encyclopedia of Historic Costume by Albert Kretschmer
  36. Children's Fashions 1900-1950 As Pictured in Sears Catalogs by JoAnne Olian
  37. Chinese Snuff Bottles by Lilla S. Perry
  38. 305 Authentic Art Nouveau Jewelry Designs by Maurice Dufrène
  39. The Young Sea Officer's Sheet Anchor by Darcy Lever
  40. Art Nouveau Decorative Ironwork by Theodore Menten
  41. Aviation Firsts by Joshua Stoff
  42. Victorian Fashions by Carol Belanger Grafton
  43. Authentic Art Deco Jewelry Designs by Franco Deboni
  44. Picture History of World War II American Aircraft Production by Joshua Stoff
  45. Barn Quilts and the American Quilt Trail Movement by Suzi Parron; Donna Sue Groves
  46. Japanese Things by Basil Hall Chamberlain
  47. Collecting Toy Soldiers in the 21st Century by James Opie
  48. "The Watch Jobber's Handybook - A Practical Manual on Cleaning by Repairing and Adjusting: Embracing Information on the Tools by Materials Appliances and Processes Employed in Watchwork" by Paul N. Hasluck
  49. Japanese Costume & Makers by Helen Minnich
  50. Sword Beach by Tim Kilvert-Jones
  51. Watchmakers and Clockmakers of the World by G. H. Baillie
  52. Japanese & Oriental Ceramic by Hazel H. Gorham
  53. The Inner Workings of a Watch - A Simple Guide for Enthusiasts of Clockwork Mechanisms by Anon
  54. Batik Art & Craft by Ila Keller
  55. Arts of Japan by Hugo Munsterberg
  56. Smoke Rings and Roundelays - Pipes and Tobacco by Wilfred Partington
  57. Secrets of an Art Dealer by James Henry Duveen
  58. The Bells of Russia by Edward V. Williams
  59. "Watch Repairing by Cleaning and Adjusting - A Practical Handbook" by F. J. Garrard
  60. Ningyo by Alan Scott Pate
  61. Illustrated Handbook of Western European Costume by Iris Brooke
  62. The Arts of the Sailor by Hervey Garrett Smith
  63. The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Guide by George Hepplewhite
  64. Antiques on the Cheap by James W. McKenzie
  65. Everyday Fashions of the Fifties As Pictured in Sears Catalogs by JoAnne Olian
  66. How We Invented the Airplane by Orville Wright
  67. A History of Costume by Carl Köhler
  68. Abraham Lincoln: Beyond the Icon by Fred Reed
  69. Guns on the Early Frontiers by Carl P. Russell
  70. Classic Wicker Furniture by Heywood Brothers
  71. Victorian Architectural Sheet-Metal Ornaments by Bakewell
  72. Badges and Uniforms of the Royal Air Force by Malcolm Hobart
  73. Trades and Crafts of Old Japan by Eric A. Kaemmerer
  74. "Armoured Warfare in Northwest Europe by 1944–45" by Anthony Tucker-Jones
  75. "Blood by Bilge and Iron Balls" by Alan Abbey
  76. "British Army by 2008–2009" by Charles Heyman
  77. Boesinghe by Stephen McGreal
  78. Painted Fans of Japan by Reiko Chiba
  79. "Illustrated Mission Furniture Catalog by 1912-13" by Come-Packt Furniture Co.
  80. Costume Through the Ages by Erhard Klepper
  81. Decorative French Ironwork Designs by Louis Blanc
  82. The Book of the Pearl by George Frederick Kunz
  83. Transatlantic Flight by Joshua Stoff
  84. Turn-of-the-Century Farm Tools and Implements by Henderson & Co.
  85. The Mode in Hats and Headdress by R. Turner Wilcox
  86. Victorian and Edwardian Fashion by Alison Gernsheim
  87. Treasury of Ironwork Designs by Carol Belanger Grafton
  88. Old-Time Children Vignettes in Full Color by Carol Belanger Grafton
  89. English Children's Costume 1775-1920 by Iris Brooke
  90. Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives by P. Ransome-Wallis
  91. Making Authentic Pennsylvania Dutch Furniture by John G. Shea
  92. A Guide Book of United States Coins 2015 by R.S. Yeoman
  93. Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts by "Dillmann by P; Watkinson by D; Angelini by E; Adriaens by A"
  94. Balinese Masks by Judy Slattum
  95. Collecting: An Unruly Passion by Werner Muensterberger
  96. Nyonya Kebaya by Datin Seri
  97. China Home by Michael Freeman
  98. Things Chinese by Ronald G. Knapp
  99. African Pottery Roulettes Past and Present by Anne Haour
  100. Collecting Japanese Antiques by Alistair Seton
  101. An Introduction to Tudor and Elizabethan Styles of Furniture by Arthur De Bles
  102. Encyclopedia of U.S. Gold Coins 1795-1934 by Jeff Garrett
  103. Surviving Examples of Early Plate Armour (1300-1430) by Douglas Strong
  104. 100 Greatest American Currency Notes by Q. David Bowers
  105. Obsolete Paper Money Issued by Banks in the United States 1782-1866 by Q. David Bowers
  106. Numismatic Art in America by Cornelius Vermeule
  107. A Guide Book of United States Paper Money by Arthur L. Friedberg
  108. American Gold and Platinum Eagles by Edmund C. Moy
  109. Suggestions For The Cleaning And Management Of Percussion Arms by George Lovell
  110. The Pocket Watch - The History and Stories Surrounding the First Pocket Watches by Anon
  111. "French Provincial Furniture And Accessories - For Interiors And Gardens - Lamps by Clocks by Faience by Porcelain by Tole And Other Metalwork by Garden Fountains by Sculptures And Other Ornaments" by Renee Guibal
  112. Treasures Of Canada by Alan Samuel
  113. Practical Watch Repairing by Donald De Carle
  114. A Guide Book of Lincoln Cents by Q David Bowers
  115. A Guide Book of Double Eagle Gold Coins by Q. David Bowers
  116. History of the United States Mint and Its Coinage by David W. Lange
  117. Grading Coins by Photographs by Q. David Bowers
  118. Coin Collecting: A Beginners Guide to the World of Coins by Kenneth Bressett
  119. "America's Money by America's Story" by Richard Doty
  120. Money and Exchange in Canada to 1900 by A.B. McCullough
  121. Toons in Toyland by Tim Hollis
  122. Victorian Jewellery by Margaret Flower
  123. Art Glass Nouveau by Ray Grover; Lee Grover
  124. British Clocks And Clockmakers by Kenneth Ullyett
  125. The Coronation Chair and Stone of Scone by Warwick Rodwell
  126. Guns of the Old West by Charles Edward Chapel
  127. Arts of China by "Hugo Munsterberg by Ph.D."
  128. A Guide Book of United States Coins 2014 by R.S.Yeoman
  129. "The Furniture of John Shearer by 1790-1820" by Elizabeth A. Davison
  130. Gallery of Late-Seventeenth-Century Costume by Caspar Luyken
  131. Ancient European Costume and Fashion by Herbert Norris
  132. A Guide Book of United States Paper Money by Arthur L. Friedberg
  133. A Guide Book of Flying Eagle and Indian Head Cents by Richard Snow
  134. A Guide Book of the Official Red Book of United States Coin by Frank J. Colletti
  135. American Gold and Platinum Eagles by Edmund C. Moy
  136. 100 Greatest U.S. Modern Coins by Scott Schechter
  137. Suggestions For The Cleaning And Management Of Percussion Arms by George Lovell
  138. Encyclopedia of U.S. Gold Coins 1795-1934 by Jeff Garrett
  139. Surviving Examples of Early Plate Armour (1300-1430) by Douglas Strong
  140. "Interesting Details on Antique American Furniture - Notes on Carving by Legs by Fittings and Upholstery" by Edgar G. Miller
  141. Art Work In Gold In Silver by Henry B. Wheatley
  142. Curiosities of the Mechanical Details in Watches by Anon
  143. Pictures From a Distant Country by Richard Doty
  144. Money and Exchange in Canada to 1900 by A.B. McCullough
  145. Snuff - Yesterday And Today by C. W. Shepherd
  146. Furniture of the Renaissance to the Baroque - A Treatise on the Furniture from Around Europe in this Period by Peter Philp
  147. Amulets by Flinders Petrie
  148. The Preservation of Leather Bookbindings by H. J. Plenderleith
  149. Automotive Milestones by Robert L. Norton
  150. Preserving History by Julie Hendricksen
  151. The Masterpieces of Thomas Chippendale - A Short Biography and His Famous Catalogue by Arthur Hayden
  152. "Catalogue of Rare Old Violins by Violas And Violoncellos - Also Bows of Rare Makes" by Anon
  153. "Antique Clock Dials by Hands by and Corner Pieces from Long Case and Lantern Clocks" by Anon
  154. Fabulous Finds by J. Lee Drexler; James R. Cohen
  155. Popular Gemology by Richard M. Pearl
  156. Manuscript Miscellanies in Early Modern England by Joshua Eckhardt; Daniel Starza Smith
  157. "Beautiful Examples of American Antique Sideboards and Kitchen Furniture - Including Sideboards from Hepplewhite by Sheraton and in the Empire Style" by Edgar J. Miller
  158. "American Military Shoulder Arms by Volume III" by George D. Moller
  159. Clock Cleaning and Repairing - With a Chapter on Adding Quarter-Chimes to a Grandfather Clock by Bernard E. Jones
  160. Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money by Q. David Bowers
  161. "The Official Red Book: A Guide Book of United States Coins by Professional Edition" by R.S. Yeoman
  162. United States Gold Counterfeit Detection Guide by Bill Favaz
  163. A Guide Book of Buffalo and Jefferson Nickels by Q. David Bowers
  164. The Art of Duelling by A Traveller
  165. History of the United States Mint and Its Coinage by David W. Lange
  166. Grading Coins by Photographs by Q. David Bowers
  167. The Tools and Materials of the Watchmaker - A Guide to the Amateur Watchmaker's Toolkit - Including How to make your own Tools by Anon
  168. A Guide Book of Franklin and Kennedy Half Dollars by Rick Tomaska
  169. A Guide Book of United States Commemorative Coins by Q. David Bowers
  170. A Guide Book of Shield and Liberty Head Nickels by Q. David Bowers
  171. Abraham Lincoln: The Image of His Greatness by Fred Reed
  172. A Guide Book of United States Type Coins by Q. David Bowers
  173. United States Currency by Kenneth Bressett
  174. "Conserving by Preserving by and Restoring Your Heritage" by Kennis Kim
  175. The History of Quilts and Patchwork Worldwide with Photographic Reproductions by Shiela Betterton
  176. A Guide Book of Morgan Silver Dollars by Q. David Bowers
  177. A Guide Book of Peace Dollars by Roger W. Burdette
  178. 100 Greatest American Currency Notes by Q. David Bowers
  179. Obsolete Paper Money Issued by Banks in the United States 1782-1866 by Q. David Bowers
  180. Duesenberg by Dennis Adler
  181. Vintage Wristwatches by Reyne Haines
  182. The Cartiers by Francesca Cartier Brickell
  183. American & British 410 Shotguns by Ronald Gabriel
  184. Art Glass Identification & Price Guide by "John Shuman by III"
  185. Warman's Lalique by Mark Moran
  186. Gun Digest Book of Modern Gun Values by Richard Allen Mann; Jerry Lee
  187. Hot Wheels Variations by Michael Zarnock
  188. 50 Famous Firearms You've Got to Own by Rick Hacker
  189. Antique Trader Book Collector's Price Guide by Richard Russell
  190. Summer at Tiffany by Marjorie Hart
  191. Coin of the Year by Donald Scarinci
  192. Warman's World War II Collectibles by Michael E. Haskew
  193. Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles - 2nd Edition by David Doyle
  194. The Ultimate Guide to G.I. Joe 1982-1994 by Mark Bellomo
  195. Fantastic Finds by Eric Bradley
  196. Warman's Tools Field Guide by Clarence Blanchard
  197. The Ultimate Guide to G.I. Joe 1982-1994 by Mark Bellomo
  198. Gun Digest Browning Semi-Auto 22 Assembly/Disassembly Instructions by Kevin Muramatsu
  199. Just 30s by Angelo Van Boggart
  200. The Gun Digest Book of Guns for Personal Defense by Kevin Michalowski
  201. Grind a Blade the R.J. Martin Way: Knife Sharpening Techniques & Tips by Joe Kertzman
  202. Warman's Antiques & Collectibles 2016 Price Guide by Noah Fleisher
  203. Warman's G.I. Joe Field Guide by Kp Books
  204. Carriages and Sleighs by "Lawrence by Bradley"
  205. Warman's Clocks Field Guide by KP Staff
  206. 2012 U.S. Coin Digest: Commemoratives 1892-1954 by David C. Harper
  207. "Standard Catalog of World Coins by 1601-1700" by George S. Cuhaj
  208. 2012 U.S. Coin Digest: U.S. Territorial Gold by David C. Harper
  209. Warman's Jewelry Field Guide by Kathy Flood
  210. Warman's Civil War Collectibles Identification and Price Guide by Russell E. Lewis
  211. 2012 U.S. Coin Digest: Quarters by David C. Harper
  212. Standard Catalog of Civil War Firearms by John F. Graf
  213. The Gun Digest Book of Firearms Assembly/Disassembly Part II - Revolvers by J B Wood
  214. Antique Trader Cameras and Photographica Price Guide by Kyle Husfloen
  215. 2013 U.S. Coin Digest by David C. Harper
  216. Warman's Tobacco Collectibles by Mark Moran
  217. "Things That Were by Things That Are by and Things That May Become" by Baby Professor
  218. Purrrfect Toys: Kids Love to Cuddle by Baby Professor
  219. 2012 U.S. Coin Digest: Gold Coins by David C. Harper
  220. Standard Catalog of Vintage Baseball Cards by Sports Collectors Digest
  221. Warman's Watches Field Guide by Reyne Haines
  222. "Collecting World Coins by 1901-Present" by George S. Cuhaj
  223. Warman's Americana & Collectibles by Ellen Schroy
  224. Public Enemy #1 - the Infamous History of John Dillinger by Hotz Mark
  225. Warman's Kitschy Kitchen Collectibles Field Guide by Brian Alexander
  226. The Instant Coin Collector by Arlyn Sieber
  227. Fishing Collectibles by Russell Lewis
  228. Standard Catalog of United States Paper Money by George S. Cuhaj
  229. Game Inventor's Guidebook by Brian Tinsman
  230. Warman's Beatles Field Guide by Tim Neely
  231. 2012 U.S. Coin Digest: Half Dollars by David C. Harper
  232. 2011 Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901-2000 by George S. Cuhaj
  233. 2016 Standard Catalog of World Coins 2001-Date by George S. Cuhaj
  234. Warman's Hot Wheels Field Guide by Michael Zarnock
  235. "Texas Furniture by Volume One" by Lonn Taylor
  236. Warman's Modern US Coins Field Guide by Arlyn Sieber
  237. Warman's U.S. Coins & Currency Field Guide by Arlyn G. Sieber
  238. Manuscript Miscellanies in Early Modern England by "Starza Smith by Daniel by Dr"
  239. Warman's World Coins Field Guide by Arlyn G. Sieber
  240. Shooter's Bible Guide to Combat Handguns by Robert A. Sadowski
  241. Shooter's Bible Guide to Knives by Roger Eckstine
  242. Extreme Bricks by Sarah Herman
  243. 1001 Hunting Tips by Lamar Underwood; Nate Matthews
  244. The Ultimate Guide to Butchering Deer by John Weiss
  245. Taking Your First Shot by Lynne Finch
  246. "The Watch & Clock Makers' Handbook by Dictionary by and Guide" by F. J. Britten
  247. Do-It-Yourself Gun Repair by Edward A. Matunas
  248. "William Spratling by His Life and Art" by Taylor D. Littleton
  249. The Little Red Book of Hunter's Wisdom by Jay Cassell; Peter J. Fiduccia
  250. Practical Watch Repairing by Donald de Carle
  251. The Cigarette Book by Chris Harrald; Fletcher Watkins
  252. Guide to Taxidermy by Charles K. Reed; Chester A. Reed
  253. Hunting Bears by Kathy Etling
  254. "Gun Trader's Guide by Thirty-Fifth Edition" by Stephen D. Carpenteri
  255. The Pocket Deer Hunting Guide by Stephen D. Carpenteri
  256. The Future of the Gun by Frank Miniter
  257. Whitetail Tactics by Peter Fiduccia
  258. Mission Furniture by H. H. Windsor
  259. The Bowhunter's Field Manual by Judd Cooney
  260. Bowhunting's Superbucks by Kathy Etling
  261. Elementary Gunsmithing by Perry D. Frazer
  262. Shoot by Julie Golob
  263. Turning for Home by Mike Gaddis
  264. The Best Hunting Stories Ever Told by Jay Cassell
  265. Kitchen Things by Richard Snodgrass
  266. Model Engine-Making by J. Pocock
  267. The 21st Century Sniper by Brandon Webb
  268. Larousse Wine by David Cobbold; Sebastian Durand-Viel
  269. Gun Trader's Guide to Handguns by Robert A. Sadowski
  270. The Little Guide to Vintage Shopping by Melody Fortier
  271. Viva la Pizza! by Scott Wiener
  272. The GH Kaestlin Collection of Imperial Russian and Zemstvo Stamps by Thomas Lera; Leon Finik
  273. Carriage Terminology by Don H. Berkebile
  274. Every Stamp Tells a Story by Cheryl Ganz
  275. The Ultimate Cigar Book by Richard Carleton Hacker
  276. Black Ops Bricks by Nick Grant
  277. Deer Hunter's & Land Manager's Pocket Reference by J. Wayne Fears
  278. Frocking Life by BillyBoy*
  279. Welsh Yeomanry at War by Steven John
  280. Tactical Gun Digest by Corey Graff
  281. "Shooter's Bible by 109th Edition" by Jay Cassell
  282. United States Martial Pistols and Revolvers by Arcadi Gluckman
  283. Guns of the New West by David Chicoine
  284. Hugh Johnson's Pocket Wine Book 2018 by Hugh Johnson
  285. "Adventure (July by 1916)" by J. Allan Dunn
  286. Great Hunting Rifles by Terry Wieland
  287. "Let's Go Camping! From cabins to caravans by crochet your own camping Scenes" by Kate Bruning
  288. From the Oven to the Table by Diana Henry
  289. Jaguar by Zef Enault; Nicolas Heidet
  290. Hugh Johnson's Pocket Wine 2020 by Hugh Johnson
  291. The Truth About Firearms and Concealed Carry by Daniel R. Engel DE
  292. Hugh Johnson's Pocket Wine Book 2019 by Hugh Johnson
  293. Hugh Johnson on Wine by Hugh Johnson
  294. The 34-Ton Bat by Steve Rushin
  295. Toast & Marmalade by Emma Bridgewater
  296. Books by Larry McMurtry
  297. Andrea Immer's Wine Buying Guide for Everyone by Andrea Immer
  298. Light of India by Warren Dotz
  299. Postcards by Jason Rodriguez
  300. "The Watch Adjuster's Manual - A Practical Guide for the Watch and Chronometer Adjuster in Making by Springing by Timing and Adjusting for Isochronism by Positions and Temperatures" by Charles Edgar Fritts
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

⚜️ Ξ Earn Ethereum (ETH) Daily Ξ ⚜️

⚜️ Ξ Earn Ethereum (ETH) Daily Ξ ⚜️

Ethereum Matrix
Ethereum (ETH) Ξ a Blockchain Matrix Project
Revolutionary Smart Contract* technology provides decentralized market participants with the ability to directly engage in personal and business transactions.
The Decentralized Matrix Project's Smart Contract is publicly and perpetually available to view on the Ethereum Blockchain.
⭐️ Zero Risk Factors - self-executing smart contract on the Ethereum Blockchain that exists in perpetuity and cannot be modified by any entity.
⭐️ Immutability - Indefinite access to the matrix is an intrinsic feature programmed into the smart contract to enable continued participation in the matrix project.
⭐️ Instant P2P Payments - The matrix smart contract is nothing more than a payment gateway that facilitates peer-to-peer commission payments between its program participants.
⭐️ Nonhierarchically Organized - A crowdfunded decentralized matrix project specifically designed to stimulate a global relocation to the crypto ecosystem by offering newcomers a seamless introductory experience.
⭐️ Transparency and Anonymity - Verifiable proof of the project’s performance statistics as well as its partners transaction history are publicly available on the Ethereum blockchain.
⭐️ Transactional Surety - Network nodes irrevocably record and ubiquitously store the transactional history of all matrix network partners on the Ethereum Blockchain
✅ Investment Requirements:
💥 A minimum investment of +- $ 12.00 considering the ETH price & GAS Fees and the US Dollar exchange rate wherever you may buy or trade ETH
🌟 Welcome to the world's 1st decentralized matrix platform project, Please see intro below
🔗 https://is.gd/introdecentmatrix
🌟 Massive Potential to Earn Ethereum (ETH) Daily through this Matrix Smart Contract
🔗 https://is.gd/introsmartmatrixcontract
🔐 Requirements:
🔑 a Secure Mobile or Desktop Multi-Crypto Wallet
🔗 https://www.exodus.io/ & 🔗 https://trustwallet.com/
🔑 FUND Your MetaMask Browser Extension with Ethereum (ETH) Ξ
⚠️‼️ SECURELY BACKUP YOUR PASSPHRASES ‼️⚠️
🔵 Take the Blue Pill ⚡️ You wake up in your bed & believe whatever you want to believe
🔴 Take the Red Pill ⚡️ Stay tuned & we will show you how far This Matrix goes
🚦 NOTE: if you bought ₿itcoin (BTC) in 2013 or prior @ +- $ 10-50 & kept those coins you would have been very pleased with today’s price @ +- $ 9700.00 @ 17 May 2020
💡 GOALS 💡
⚜️ Accumulate Cryptos ₿ Ξ Đ ɱ ℏ Ł ₮ Ⱥ Ħ Ƀ ⓩ Ɍ
⚜️ Earn additional income
⚜️ Give Back 2 the Community
⚜️ Diversify Risk
⚜️ Live Your Passion
💎 Fact: "Financial Freedom is available to those who learn about it & work for it" 💎
✅ Earn Ethereum (ETH) Daily, by joining here.: 🔗 https://is.gd/ethereumdaily
‼️NOTE‼️
If no upline then use Matrix 🆔:101291 to sign up
By the People for the People
⚜️ <₿> Never Loose Passion <₿> ⚜️
\#Ethereum \#ETH \#Bitcoin \#BTC \#blockchain \#blockhaving \#cryptocurrency \#Matrix
\#RDD tip: Rse199zHXH5wax3EPos42gyhzG899vgWHn
\#Dash tip: Xp31orJohuWh2gGhNrbsEoDvuyv5Edproo
\#LTC tip: MRrZAUvHaTMFckWj26oR2383WswXr97HZV
\#XZC tip: aM1qnHor4Gh8gM8BMWo8ccFRQunPWLoaWQ
\#ETH tip, sign up to https://is.gd/ethereumdaily
**Disclaimer** Please be advised that I own a diverse portfolio of cryptocurrency. I choose to be transparent and impartial to the cryptocurrency community at all times, and therefore, the content of my media are intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES not financial advice. The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial legal or tax advice. The content of this media is solely the opinions of the creator who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Purchasing cryptocurrencies poses considerable risk of loss as well as huge profits. The creator does not guarantee any particular outcome. Past performance does not indicate future results. This information is what was found publicly on the internet. This is all my own opinion. All information is meant for public awareness and is public domain. Please take this information and do your own research. There will be affiliated links from time to time, whereby you are welcome to test the content first as well as choose not to use affiliate links, these links assist in generating income for my own investment strategies as well as pay for bills and empowers me to be able to create more content.
submitted by 0x0707 to u/0x0707 [link] [comments]

Partnership with Bitcoin.com

Partnership with Bitcoin.com

https://preview.redd.it/k8z50ujy8kv41.jpg?width=1320&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e30cb9ff8372fc2311c394f8528cfd61a8494aa1
Partnership with Bitcoin.com Si14Bet has passed an investment project incubator and is currently discussing a deal with Bitcoin.com and listing on the Bitcoin Exchange. Scheduled dates for the IEO have not yet been set. The eco-systems of Bitcoin.com and Si14Bet platforms correspond to a mutually beneficial collaboration between the platforms. The main conditions of Bitcoin.com for the allocation of investments were the introduction of BCH in the system of replenishment of Si14 exchange users. Keep up to date with the latest news about our company. https://si14bet.io #si14 #betfair #bettingsports #onlinebetting #bet365 #bookmakers #bookies #soccerbetting #si14_bet #bettors #coinmarketcap #bookmaker #bestservice #investment #investing #gambling #bettingexchange #betting #si14bet #casino #sportbookies #bettingtip #bettingonline #livebetting #bettingfootball #oods
submitted by Si14Bet to u/Si14Bet [link] [comments]

Uniex.biz Review: 3%-7% daily for lifetime

Uniex.biz is an HYIP project which provides long term deposit plans. It has been online since 25th Jul 2019, and admin changed website template and investment plans three days ago. So what you see now is a completely new version. When this new version was online three days ago, admin began to promote it with more money on hyip monitors and blogs. Now let's see the details of it.
Started: 2019-07-25
Investment Plans
You have a chance to earn 3%-7% daily for lifetime, and principal is included. The minimum amount to buy power is 300 GH/s for SHA-256 algorithm, 20 MH/s for Scrypt algorithm and 3 MH/s for Ethash algorithm. Of course, the more power you buy, the more daily profit you will receive.
The minimum amount that you can transfer to your balance is set to be 0.001 BTC, 0.015 BCH, 0.03 ETH, 0.5 ETC, 0.1 LTC, 1500 Doge or 5 USD. Please keep in mind that if you send an amount that is less than the specified value, the transfer will not be credited to the balance. So be sure to reach the minimum amount. When replenish work is done, you can choose to "BUY THE POWER".
Referral Commissions(7%-1%)
Each mining power purchased by your direct partner (level 1 referral) will bring you 7% of its purchase amount. In addition, your tier 2 partners bring another 1% of each purchase. All rewards will be credited to the balance in the currency that was used for the purchase.
If you join under my link, then welcome to submit RCB request at the top of my website, I will give 7% of your deposits back to your wallet as soon as I receive the money.
Payment Options
Uniex.biz accepts Bitcoin, BitcoinCash, Ethereum, Eth Classic, Litecoin, Dogecoin, PerfectMoney and Payeer. You can use all of them to replenish account balance. In order to withdraw profits in USD, Uniex.biz implemented the function of exchanging the obtained cryptocurrency for USD. Enter the "Balance" section in your personal account and select the “Exchange” tab to exchange obtained currency for USD. Please note that the amount you can exchange must be equivalent to 0.10 USD or more. Exchange commission is 8%.
Withdrawal Type
Uniex has set a minimum withdrawal amount to be 0.001 BTC, 0.015 BCH, 0.03 ETH, 0.5 ETC, 0.1 LTC, 2000 Doge or 2.5 USD. Each user who invested in Uniex can order a withdrawal of profits as soon as the minimum amount reaches on his balance; The time for consideration of requests is up to 48 hours.
More Information
Uniex.biz now supports 12 languages, so you can choose the one which is suitable for you. For more news about it, you can follow their social media at the bottom of website, including Telegram, Twitter and Youtube.
Register: https://uniex.biz/?ref=YpvAG7
Read More: https://www.hyiper.net/blog/154.html
submitted by vipinvestor1988 to u/vipinvestor1988 [link] [comments]

The ultimate guide to passive crypto earnings!

I've spent the last couple months figuring out a good strategy to generate some passive cryptocurrency without investing money before a big bull-run starts. As Bitcoin is still fairly low, but cryptos have been risen again in the last weeks, it's best to get in now. I don't have very much time, so I examinated the best-working websites with the littlest time investment and the highest result possible.

Disclaimer: This will be a long post and I'll tell you all the sites I use and how my strategy works. Use it as an inspiration and develop your own working strategy. Skip stuff that doesn't seem to be worth your time or websites you don't like. If you don't like to use a referral-link, just remove the last part of the link. Most websites will give you a bonus when signing up with a ref-link, though and I would appreciate it for the effort I put in this guide.

I assume you have some basic knowledge on cryptocurrencies, a wallet and accounts on Faucethub and Coinpot.

So, let's get started.

Step 1: Claim once a day from stacking up faucets

If you're familiar with faucets, you probably know the moon-faucets that pay directly to Coinpot. They keep stacking up until your next claim, so they are the best and highest-paying faucets if you want to keep your time claiming as little as possible. I suggest you use them at least once a day to accumulate the daily bonus that will really change your game. I do a quick claiming round once in the morning and once in the evening. If you have more time, they are also really worth being claimed more often. For the sake of completion I will include them here:

Moonbitcoin for Bitcoin
Moonlitecoin for Litecoin
Moonbitcoincash for Bitcoin Cash
Moondash for Dash
Moondogecoin for Dogecoin
Bitfun stacking up Bitcoin-faucet that pays instantly to Coinpot

Two new exact clones of the Moonfaucets that pay instantly to Faucethub with no minimum. They also have daily bonus:

Getcoin Bitcoin for Bitcoin
Getcoin Litecoin for Litecoin

And the last stacking up faucet for BTC: Yannik.biz

So yeah, try to claim them at least once a day to maintain your daily bonus. The bonus can really be a game changer on these ones. Claiming them all will take no more than 5-10 minutes every day.

Step 2: Receive daily interest on your faucet claims!

Send your Bitcoin to Freebitcoin and receive daily interest on your balance once you have more than 30000 Satoshis (shouldn't take too long if you put in some effort in the beginning). You can also use the website as a faucet once a hour. It is actually paying well. If you use my link to sign up a new account you will receive life-long +12,5% on your daily interest and +25% on all your claims. If you already have an account, just create a new one with this link and delete your old one as this ref-back-bonus will give you a decent boost on your earnings. Freebitcoin is one of the oldest and most trusted website in the crypto scene!

Step 3: Claim even more cryptos once you have some spare time

Highest-paying sites I found where you can claim every hour along with Freebitcoin are these:

Cointiply: very high paying and they also give you daily interest, but are tied to USD-rates, so you're better off withdrawing your satoshis to Freebitcoin once you reached minimum withdrawal as you would lose satoshis if BTC price continues to rise.

Freedogecoin: Same as Freebitcoin, but with less functions.

Bitsfree: New website with cool design where you can claim once a hour and withdraw to Faucethub at a fairly low amount. Pays pretty well.

Claimbits: Same script as Bitsfree, but pays a bit less and you have to solve three shortlinks once in a while to be able to claim. It's still worth participating in.

Remember: On every claim on these websites you have the chance to win a big amount of cash. So try to use them as often as possible. Unlike the stacking up faucets, with the exception of Cointiply, they don't have a daily bonus, so it's no problem if you ignore them for a while.

Bonusbitcoin: Claim a good amount of satoshis every 15 minutes. Instant payments to Coinpot again.

Click high-paying ads on AdBtc and Dogeads. Another good website for high-paying BTC-ads is Bits-Pays.

Use websites where you can do surveys and all kinds of stuff to earn money that also pay in cryptocurrency. The best website I found that is similar to Swagbucks and has the option to pay cryptos is probably Grindabuck.

Claim your daily bonus at Firefaucet, collect some Autoclaims during the week and run it during the happy hours on the weekend to get most of it. Instant payments to Faucethub.

Step 4: Use semi-passive methods with crypto farming games

There are some crypto games out there that have the ability to build you a decent chunk of passive income after a while. The sites require small tasks you do to earn crypto or credits which you can re-invest in stuff that will generate passive income for you. It takes some effort upfront, but once set up they will passively pay you with no additional effort.Here are my favorites:

Satoshi-Labs: Claim from a faucet every 5 minutes, do surveys and shortlinks and re-invest your earnings in buildings that will generate satoshis for you every hour.

Cryptomininggame: Play a simulated mining game and do missions to level up. As you level up, your earnings increase. This site has a high stacking up daily bonus and can be very profitable once you get to a high level.

Bits-Pays: Has several options to earn passive income. You can play their mining game or buy company shares that will give you dividends. It has a lot of attractive offers for advertisers and very high paying ads and daily bonus, too!

Bitcoinfun: This is a new website that works the exact same as satoshilabs. Once you're into satoshilabs you will also get Bitcoinfun. I see a lot of potential for this website.

Step 5: Fully passive methods

So yeah, let's come to the best part. There are options that require no effort at all! Let's go.

I've already written about sending my satoshis to Freebitcoin for daily interest, but what you can also do is sending some cryptos to Eobot. They are probably the only legit Cloudmining platform out there that has been paying since 2013. You can also claim some GHS there every 24 hours if you set Mining to GHS 5.0. first, which is cool. I like to send some of my altcoins like Doge and Bitcoin Cash to them and convert them in GHS to earn passive Satoshis.

You have probably heart it a thousand times on this sub, but you can also earn Bitcoin by using the two legit autosurfers that pay in Bitcoin by now. This is a fully passive method, just run them whenever you're online.

Getcashfree and Fastcashmining.
Another fully passive website planning to add crypto-payments soon is Radioearn.

Use browser extensions that will automatically generate money for you just for using them:

Presearch: This is probably the best search engine I've ever seen. After installing it will be opened every time you open a new tab. You can customize it, so you can choose from searching via Google, Amazon, Reddit, Wikipedia and much more without accessing the websites first. This is very comfortably and the best part about it: You earn Pre-Tokens for every search, which you can later exchange for BTC.

Surfe.be: A browser extension that shows you some Banners while surfing the web and pays you some money for it. You can disable it at any time and it isn't over-present at all when surfing (I barely notice the banners).

Claim every 24 hours from Mellowads and use it to advertise your ref-links. You can also promote your ref-links on AdBTC, Bits-Pays and DogeAds. Having referrals is another good way to generate some passive income.

Sign up for Mannabase. This is a cool project that aims to create some sort of crypto Universal Basic Income for everyone. After signing up you will need to verify your identity and once they accept you, you'll receive free Manna every week. You can then exchange Manna for BTC or USD. As they have a lot of pending approvals, expect it to take 1-2 months before they accept you.

Conclusion

So yeah, that's basically my main sources and my strategy and I treat it as some sort of site-business. If I am lazy, I spend no more than 10-15 minutes a day to claim the stacking up faucets and daily bonuses on websites and receive my daily interest, payments from Eobot, crypto games and browser extensions anyway. It's really cool to watch your balances, bonus and interest grow over time and who knows? 1$ in Crypto could be 30$ of Crypto in the future. Use this guide as an inspiration to develop your own strategy of acquiring as many Cryptos for free as you can. For me these websites work the best. And I tested a lot of websites.

Additional tips: Use different passwords on the websites and write them all down. It can be a hassle memorizing several passwords. Also create a separate e-mail-address for all the crypto websites. To make it easier handling all the websites, group them in a document e.q. all 1 hour faucets, all stacking up faucets and add links, so you can quickly access them when you want to use this particular group of websites. Be patient at first, your earnings will increase over time.

Feel free to ask me anything, have fun and happy claiming! :)
submitted by kryptanthrax to beermoneyglobal [link] [comments]

ULTIMATE CRYPTO FAUCET LIST - Abraham Lincoln and a cool list of cryptocurrency faucets for you and your shibe.

Four score and a couple of months ago a few crypto-faucet winners and losers popped up in my browser... SOME WERE THE BEST HOT DAMN FREE BITCOIN FAUCETS that a person could find and well some were not as fast...During the last decade the worlds developers and programmers brought forth on this planet the crypto-faucet in many different forms. Are all faucets created equal? They are not... Alright I know this isn't the Gettysburg address but who doesn't love Lincoln?
Here I have compiled The best Fun and Profitable Cryptocoin Faucet List for you. If you like this list you may use it to sign up for these great faucets and claim Bitcoin as well as many different Altcoins. These are referral links so I might get some fantastic referrals like you in exchange for creating this hopefully useful list.
One thing you will need is patience, if you are going to try to get some bitcoins or altcoins for free. it's not really free basically you are being given a very tiny amount of crypto-currency for watching internet advertising or for competing in games or challenges. There are also places you can get paid in Cryptocurrency for completing surveys or doing small tasks.
As with anything on the internet you use these at your own risk and do be careful out there in faucet land. Some of these pages have third party advertisers that will have some pretty crazy s**t pop up on you.
If you do want to go wandering around in faucet land, Here are some of my favourite bitcoin and altcoin faucets;
These are a few of the best i've found for Bitcoin!
FREE BITCO.IN - this one pays out daily interest once you have a high enough balance
The next seven faucets listed are for COINPOT a handy collector for your faucet claims. They payout quite quickly once you reach minimums.
MOON BITCOIN
BITFUN
BONUS BITCOIN: HINT; this one is great on it's own but it's even better if you find the settings and always claim the average amount! Unless you hit the jackpot this will always bring you more coins over the long run.
If you prefer Altcoin faucets these are very wOw! <3
MOON BITCOIN CASH
MOON LITECOIN
MOON DASH
MOON DOGE! MEGA WOW! MUCH SHIBE THANKS! WOW wow WOW
MORE DOGE AT FREEDOGE COIN
BYTECOIN: tHe recently PINK CRYPTO
Here is a site that GETS BONUS POINTS for having a funny name You can claim bitcoin quite often but it takes a long time to reach the threshold unless you have referrals. That's where you come in my friend please help me out and become a referral. Thank you very much! :-)
BITCOINKER! - update NOT PAYING as of July 2019 site admin please pay up!
Or another site you will need much patience to get a little EtherEum;
eThErEuM FAUCET
There are some sites that have games! and pay a little bit of coins for hanging out and playing some games. cool.
CHOPCOIN
BITFUN
LOOTBITS! reviews not good probably scam -
If you like to claim quite a bit,do surveys, or get free coins through chat you might want to try: FAUCETHUB They give away quite a bit of free Potcoin (POT) as well as other coins such as DOGE and PRIMECOIN
If you like Faucethub and it's owner (s)he has another site that pays you for shortening your links: BTC-LINK SHORTENER
And this strange little crypto-game(?) is the one featured in the image for this post. While you can deposit to make the 'game' go faster you can also play for free and have the option of earning coins in other ways.
WEIRD LITTLE CRYPTO FARM GAME - - after "researching" this one it is probably a "loser" based on reviews found on various forums. That said I'm hangin' in there for now to see what happens.
CLOUD MINE FOR FREE - ON EOBOT if you are so inclined. You will need to either claim from their faucet everyday and put it into GHS rental or transfer funds from other faucets to get started just message me here if you are having trouble.
This faucet claiming and "cloud mining" is all very experimental and profits are very small. At the end of the day; PERHAPS IT IS BETTER JUST TO OUTRIGHT BUY COINS - Through this exchange BINANCE
Who knows if anyone is really making much on this stuff or not. Join one or join them all the more the merrier. So that's the list. I hope all you faucet seekers or curious browsers find it useful and or interesting. Good luck out there and if you have any questions about any of them please feel free to message me. All the best in your search for freedom and equality!
*don't forget to upvote!
submitted by CRYPTOGLYPHi to dogeforfree [link] [comments]

MINING 100 GHS FREE

MINING 100 GHS FREE
Ogogogo scored on him AND HE DID NOT KNOW AND EVEN WHO PAYS IT !!!

https://preview.redd.it/das2irkma4k31.jpg?width=1181&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=01b1a3fa4cff94a61990fe9526736d42a74332f6
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9myZLShU6lM VIDEO NOT MY HERE IS PRESENTED AS AN ADVERTISING OF A PERSON DESERVES RESPECT AND SUBSCRIPTION ITS REFERENCE (YOU CAN BY MY)

https://www.virtualmining.farm/signup/?referrer=5C5F336977B08 VIRTUAL MINING bonus 100 GHS
The rate of 15% / year. No maintenance fee

COPY OF CHIC SITE https://www.cryptominingfarm.io/signup/ ... D9172A7CB4

LOOK AND KILL, MAYBE AND NOT RESOLVE YOURSELF https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dFVhxqQ8uE VIDEO NOT MY HERE IS PLACED AS AN ADVERTISEMENT

OUR FEATURES Terms and Conditions

Understanding Cryptocurrency
- Cryptocurrency is not money. He cannot pay off the debt normally.
- Cryptocurrency is a financial innovation that can be used as real money only on social networks or on the Internet.
- Cryptocurrency is not under the control of banks and government or government agencies.
- Cryptocurrency can be used to buy goods or services in those places where there are signs or labels that accept cryptocurrency around the world.

Membership policy
- Do not charge or accept the currency that the government accepts.
This is a virtual rental of investment space in the cloud. Service charges are not charged in the currency accepted by the government.
- There is no policy of encouraging or influencing membership at https://www.virtualmining.farm and using the government’s currency to buy or exchange at https://www.virtualmining.farm. We have no policy of returning you in national currency.
- We do not have a policy to make deposits or to be an agent to use the state currency for exchanging bitcoins and use them for absolute investments.
- We paid profit to everyone through cryptocurrency only in the cloud system. In addition, we do not have a policy on payment, exchange or refund in another state currency.
- The profit depends on the exchange market and the value of the cryptocurrency in the market or on investments in bitcoin mining in a virtual mining mode in the cloud system only without using cryptocurrency to invest in instruments or any property.
- Do not encourage participation, do not stimulate or distort the state of cryptocurrency.

Spamming
We will send an IP address that sends spam or disrupts the system to stopforumspam.com and bans the account. Or you violate the membership policy.

Cancellation Policy
- The entire cryptocurrency system is an encryption system. The mining rental will be completed when the bitcoins are sent to the system, so we will not be able to return the money. In addition, we do not have a cryptocurrency return policy in any case.
- If you entered the wrong wallet address during the withdrawal process, and the balance was lost from the account. Please contact customer service or support. In any case, it is impossible to return the money after the completion of the withdrawal process.
-You should be responsible for the second transfer if you paid an incomplete amount.
- You must save your password and email address as your responsibility.

Terms of Service and Warranty
- We guarantee all transaction information. Please keep your email address used for secure registration. When you cannot log in, it is important to contact us.
- If you cannot enter your email address. Please contact your email provider. We do not allow changing your email address in any way.
- We guarantee a successful withdrawal of funds within 72 hours after the bitcoin is sent from your system. It does not include the blockchain system confirmation time, which cannot be scheduled. In addition, it does not include the wrong wallet address. It takes time to investigate and report support issues.
- We do not guarantee any damage from exchange, delays or abnormal disputes.
- We do not guarantee an account without a configured two-step verification.
- Guaranteed returns and returns are only available on the blockchain. We do not accept or pay anything else.
- We do not guarantee the withdrawal of the wrong account. The fact that you have confirmed receipt of an email is considered termination of our assistance. We can’t confirm your account number, whether your number or not.
- We do not guarantee withdrawal fees during large waiting times. It may be higher than usual.
- We do not guarantee any bonus for any unsuccessful referral register. Registration will be completed after you confirm your email address. We do not allow changing or editing the referral number strictly in any case.
- We are glad to solve all the problems. We will answer your problem at https://help.virtualmining.farm within 7 days, excluding troubleshooting time
submitted by Grutttt to 4NEW [link] [comments]

Inb4 @DigiEconomist publishes his flawed Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index (BECI)

Do you even math, bro?
[Updated Dec 31st, 2016 (using most recent numbers)]:
First, the claim:
http://digiconomist.net/beci
"Estimated energy used over the last 24 hours (KWh) 30,144,177
Now the facts.
Total hashing, today: 2,359,569 TH/s (per BitcoinWatch.com)
Using current (efficient) Antminer S9s. ( https://www.amazon.com/Antminer-S9-13-5TH-098W-Bitcoin/dp/B01MCZVPFE ) Each does 13.5 TH/s, and uses ~1,323W. So if all mining was using these, that would be 174,782 of these units (2,359,569 / 13.5). X 1,323W = 5.5 GWh/day.
The claim above was 30.1 GWh, or more than 5X this metric.
Ok, maybe not all mining is done with efficient S9s. Let's use all last-generation (essentially economically unviable, obsolete) hardware, the Antminer S7.
Using older (less efficient) Antminer S7s. ( https://www.amazon.com/Antminer-~4-73TH-Fans-Bitcoin-Minedp/B014OGCP6W ) Each does 4.73 TH/s, and uses ~1,293W. So if all mining was using these, that would be 498,851 of these units (2,359,569÷4.73). X 1,293W = 15.5 GWh/day.
So Digiconomist's index is based on a total that is too high by about twice (2X) this value.
But we know the biggest mining farms are not using obsolete hardware, and they represent a majority of the hashing.
So, at best, Digiconomist's numbers are 2X or 3X too high, and likely are even worse.
submitted by cointastical to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Cofred.com Bitcoin Fraud and Scam. Beware! /r/Bitcoin

Cofred.com Bitcoin Fraud and Scam. Beware! /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Cofred.com Bitcoin Fraud and Scam. Beware! /r/Bitcoin

Cofred.com Bitcoin Fraud and Scam. Beware! /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Cofred.com bitcoin scam. Beware! /r/Bitcoin

Cofred.com bitcoin scam. Beware! /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Biggest threat to bitcoin is bitcoin2, or litecoin, or clonecoin, or...

I'm excited about the concept of bitcoin and bought some back in the $1 days (not as many as I should have). While I think the main stumbling block now is how much of a pain it is to buy them (I know we think it's easy, and we can show someone how, but if average Jane tries to buy them, she's going to give up), I don't think the difficulty in the fiat->bitcoin exchange is what is going to lower their value.
Before bitcoin really takes off as "the" digital standard, I think we'll have a lot of the other bitcoin clones trying to become the "bitcoin". You're already seeing it. They just don't get attention (yet). You'll see some vendors taking one and not the other, etc. You might see governments setting some up that are backed by -- well -- nothing but the government. I think you'll see private bitcoin type products that are backed by x oz of gold? x oz of silver? etc. There will be several all screaming "pick me! pick me!"
I think it's a no brainer that something LIKE bitcoin will be the future. There are way too many advantages of bitcoin to not have it be the future of transactions. However, even though I'm a fan I don't think the CURRENT bitcoin has that position nailed.
Anyone else feel the same way?
(Disclosure: I sold most of my coins when they went up to ~$40. I thought that was crazy high. Then they went to $200+ and I felt stupid. So I'm not claiming to be a pro here...)
submitted by CodyFP to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Where can I make beer money CPU mining with a stack of 10 - 20 PCs

Doing the math it would take me a year of mining Bitcoin with 20 average desktop PCs just to earn $5
I could obviously but these PCs to better use running a Distributed.net project but we're here to make Beer money not cure Cancer. I'm a horrible person I know
Anyplace where I can make some money off these CPU cycles?
submitted by Kicker774 to beermoney [link] [comments]

Cryptocurrencies are equal to legal tender. In Germany by law.

Cryptocurrencies are equal (treated under certain circumstances) to legal tender. This is Statement of the German government in a new 27.02.2018 VAT law. I think this could bee the way how G20 will discuss cryptos for whole EU. FOMO.
Linked to the PDF on Minster of Finance site (in German) with original text:
http://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Downloads/BMF_Schreiben/Steuerarten/UmsatzsteueUmsatzsteuer-Anwendungserlass/2018-02-27-umsatzsteuerliche-behandlung-von-bitcoin-und-anderen-sog-virtuellen-waehrungen.html
Summary taken from. https://twitter.com/Hofbraeuestatus/969135461452132352?s=19:
Edit: the part about legal tender is wording in the legal text... Of course it doesn't mean you can go to the next supermarket and force them to be paid with Bitcoin. For Crypto as an investment you have to pay taxes.
Sorry for my hype, but I think it is great news anyway.
Read more about this in comment by phobos0815
This is the original text from the legal text.
„(3a) 1 Sog. virtuelle Währungen (Kryptowährungen, z.B. Bitcoin) werden den gesetzlichen Zahlungsmitteln gleichgestellt, soweit diese sog. virtuellen Währungen von den an der Transaktion Beteiligten als alternatives vertragliches und unmittelbares Zahlungsmittel akzeptiert worden sind und keinem anderen Zweck als der Verwendung als Zahlungsmittel dienen (vgl. EuGH-Urteil vom 22. Oktober 2015, C-264/14, Hedqvist, BStBl 2018 II S. xxx). 2 Dies gilt nicht für virtuelles Spielgeld (sog. Spielwährungen oder Ingame-Währungen, insbesondere in Onlinespielen).“
submitted by Noyzone to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining Profitability: How Long Does it Take to Mine One Bitcoin in 2019?

When it comes to Bitcoin (BTC) mining, the major questions on people’s minds are “how profitable is Bitcoin mining” and “how long would it take to mine one Bitcoin?” To answer these questions, we need to take an in-depth look at the current state of the Bitcoin mining industry — and how it has changed — over the last several years.
Bitcoin mining is, essentially, the process of participating in Bitcoin’s underlying security mechanism — known as proof-of-work — to help secure the Bitcoin blockchain. In return, participants receive compensation in bitcoins (BTC).
When you participate in Bitcoin mining, you are essentially searching for blocks by crunching complex cryptographic challenges using your mining hardware. Once a block is discovered, new transactions are recorded and verified within the block and the block discoverer receives the block rewards — currently set at 12.5 BTC — as well as the transactions fees for the transactions included within the block.
Once the maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoins has been mined, no further Bitcoins will ever come into existence. This property makes Bitcoin deflationary, something which many argue will inevitably increase the value of each Bitcoin unit as it becomes more scarce due to increased global adoption.
The limited supply of Bitcoin is also one of the reasons why Bitcoin mining has become so popular. In previous years, Bitcoin mining proved to be a lucrative investment option — netting miners with several fold returns on their investment with relatively little effort.
bitcoin mining hardware
Mining Hardware
The mining hardware you choose will mostly depend on your circumstances — in terms of budget, location and electricity costs. Since the amount of hashing power you can dedicate to the mining process is directly correlated with how much Bitcoin you will mine per day, it is wise to ensure your hardware is still competitive in 2019.
Bitcoin uses SHA256 as its mining algorithm. Because of this, only hardware compatible with this algorithm can be used to mine Bitcoin. Although it is technically possible to mine Bitcoin on your current computer hardware — using your CPU or GPU — this will almost certainly not generate a positive return on your investment and you may end up damaging your device.
The most cost-effective way to mine Bitcoin in 2019 is using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) mining hardware. These are specially-designed machines that offer much higher performance per watt than typical computers and have been an absolutely essential purchase for anybody looking to get into Bitcoin mining since the first Avalon ASICs were shipped in 2013.
When it comes to selecting Bitcoin mining hardware, there are several main parameters to consider — though the importance of each of these may vary based on personal circumstances and budget.
Performance per Watt
When it comes to Bitcoin mining, performance per watt is a measure of how many gigahashes per watt a machine is capable of and is, hence, a simple measure of its efficiency. Since electricity costs are likely to be one of the largest expenses when mining Bitcoin, it is usually a good idea to ensure that you are getting good performance per watt out of your hardware.
Ideally, your mining hardware would be highly efficient, allowing it to mine Bitcoin with lower energy requirements — though this will need to be balanced with acquisition costs, as often the most efficient hardware is also the most expensive. This means it may take longer to see a return on investment.
In countries with cheap electricity, performance per watt is often less of a concern than acquisition costs and price-performance ratio. In most countries, operating outdated mining hardware is typically cost prohibitive, as energy costs outweigh the income generated by the mining equipment.
However, this may not be the case for those operating in countries with extremely cheap electricity — such as Kuwait and Venezuela — as even older equipment can still be profitable. Similarly, miners with a free energy surplus, such as from wind or solar electric generators, can benefit from the minimal gains offered by still running outdated hardware.
Longevity
The lifetime of mining hardware also plays a critical role in determining how profitable your mining venture will be. It’s always a good idea to do whatever possible to ensure it runs as smoothly as possible.
Since mining equipment tends to run at a full (or almost full) load for extended periods, they also tend to break down and fail more frequently than most electronics — which can seriously damage your profitability. Equipment failure is even more common when purchasing second-hand equipment. Since warranty claims are often challenging, it can often take a long time to receive a warranty replacement.
Price-Performance Ratio
In many cases, one of the major criteria used to select mining hardware is the price-performance ratio — a measure of how much performance a machine outputs per unit price. In the case of cryptocurrency mining hardware, this is commonly expressed as gigahashes per dollar or GH/$.
Under ideal circumstances, the mining hardware would have a high price-performance ratio, ensuring you get a lot of bang for your buck. However, this must also be considered in combination with the acquisition costs and the expected lifetime of the machine — since the absolute most powerful machines are not always the cheapest or the most energy efficient.
Acquisition Costs
Acquisition costs are almost always the biggest barrier to entry for most Bitcoin miners since most top-end mining hardware costs several thousand dollars. This problem is further compounded by the fact that many hardware manufacturers offer discounts for bulk purchases, allowing those with deeper pockets to achieve a better price-performance ratio.
Acquisition costs include all the costs involved in purchasing any mining equipment, including hardware costs, shipping costs, import duties, and any further costs. For example, many ASIC miners do not include a power supply — which can be another considerable expense, since the 1,000W+ power supplies usually required tend to cost several hundred dollars alone.
Ensuring your equipment runs smoothly can also add in additional costs, such as cooling and maintenance expenses. In addition, some miners may want to invest in uninterruptible power supplies to ensure their hardware keeps running — even if the power fails temporarily.
asic mining
Current Generation Hardware
One of the most recent additions to the Bitcoin mining hardware market is the Ebang Ebit E11++, which was released in October 2018. Using a 10nm fabrication process for its processors, the Ebit E11++ is able to achieve one of the highest hash rates on the market at 44TH/s.
In terms of efficiency, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is arguably the best on the market, offering 44TH/s of hash rate while drawing just 1,980W of power, offering 22.2GH/W performance. However, as of writing, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is out of stock until March 31, 2019 — while its price of $2,024 (excluding shipping) may make it prohibitively expensive for those first getting involved with Bitcoin mining.
Another popular choice is the ASICminer 8 Nano, a machine released in October 2018 that offers 44TH/s for $3,900 excluding shipping. The ASICminer 8 Nano draws 2,100W of power, giving it an efficiency of almost 21GH/W — slightly lower than the Ebit E11++ while costing almost double the price. However, unlike the E11++, the 8 Nano is actually in stock and available to purchase.
ASICminer also offers the 8 Nano Pro, a machine launched in mid-2018 that offers 80 TH/s of hash rate for $9,500 (excluding shipping). However, unlike the Ebit E11++ and 8 Nano, the minimum order quantity for the 8 Nano Pro is curiously set at five, meaning you will need to lay out a minimum of $47,500 in order to actually get your hands on one (or five).
While the 8 Nano Pro doesn’t offer the same performance per watt as the Ebit E11+ or AICMiner 8 Nano, it is one of the quieter miners on this list, making it more suitable for a home or office environment. That being said, the ASICminer 8 Nano Pro is easily the most expensive miner per TH on this list — costing a whopping $118.75/TH, compared to the $46/TH offered by the E11++ and $88.64 offered by the 8 Nano.
The latest hardware on this list is the Innosilicon T3 43T, which is currently available for pre-order at $2,279, and estimated to ship in March 2019. Offering 43TH/s of performance at 2,100W, the T3 43T comes in at an efficiency of 20.4GH/W, which is around 10 percent less energy efficient than the Ebit E11++.
The T3 43T also has a minimum order quantity of three units, making the minimum acquisition cost $6837 + shipping for preorders. All in all, the T3 43T is more costly and less efficient than the E11++ but may arrive slightly earlier since Ebang will not ship the E11++ units until at least end March 29, 2019.
Finally, this list would not be complete without including Bitmain’s latest offering, the Antminer S15-28TH/s, which — as its name suggests — offers 28TH/s of hash power while drawing just under 1600W at the wall. The Antminer S15 is one of the only SHA256 miners to use 7nm processors, making it somewhat smaller than some of the other devices on this list.
Like most pieces of top-end Bitcoin mining hardware, the Antminer S15 27TH/s model is currently sold out, with current orders not shipping until mid-February 2019. However, the S15 is offered at a significantly lower price than many of its competitors at just $1020 (excluding shipping), with no minimum quantity restriction. At these rates, the Antminer comes in at just $37.78/TH — though its energy efficiency is a much less impressive 17.5GH/W.
Mining Hardware Mining Hardware Comparison
Performance (GH/W) Price Performance Ratio ($/TH)
Ebang Ebit E11++ 22.2GH/W $46/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano 21GH/W $88.64/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano Pro 19GH/W $118.75/TH
Innosilicon T3 43T 20.4GH/W $53/TH
Antminer S15-28TH/s 17.5GH/W $37.78/TH
How To Select a Good Mining Pool
Mining pools are platforms that allow miners to pool their resources together to achieve a higher collective hash rate — which, in turn, allows the collective to mine more blocks than they would be able to achieve alone.
Typically, these mining pools will distribute block rewards to contributing miners based on the proportion of the hash rate they supply. If a pool contributing a total of 20 TH/s of hash rate successfully mines the next block, a user responsible for 10 percent of this hash rate will receive 10 percent of the 12.5 BTC reward.
Pools essentially allow smaller miners to compete with large private mining organizations by ensuring that the collective hash rate is high enough to successfully mine blocks on regular basis. Without operating through a mining pool, many miners would be unlikely to discover any blocks at all — due to only contributing a tiny fraction of the overall Bitcoin hash rate.
While it is quite possible to be successful mining without a pool, this typically requires an extremely large mining operation and is usually not recommended — unless you have enough hash rate to mine blocks on a regular basis.
Although it is technically possible to discover blocks mining solo and keep the entire 12.5 BTC reward for yourself, the odds of this actually occurring are practically zero — making pool collaboration practically the only way to compete in 2019 and beyond.
Selecting the best pool for you can be a challenging job since the vast majority of pools are quite similar and offer similar features and comparable fees. Because of this, we have broken down the qualities you should be looking for in a new pool into four categories; reputation, hash rate, pool fees, and usability/features:
Reputation
The reputation of a pool is one of the most important factors in selecting the pool that is best for you. Well-reputed pools will tend to be much larger than newer or less well-established pools since few pools with a poor reputation can stand the test of time.
Well-reputed pools also tend to be more transparent about their operation, many of which provide tools to ensure that each user is getting the correct reward based on the hash rate contributed. By using only pools with a great reputation, you also ensure your hash rate is not being used for nefarious purposes — such as powering a 51 percent attack.
When comparing a list of pools that appear suitable for you, it is a wise move to read their user reviews before making your choice — ensuring you don’t end up mining at a pool that steals your hard-fought earnings.
Hash Rate
When it comes to mining Bitcoin, the probability of discovering the next block is directly related to the amount of hashing power you contribute to the network. Because of this, one of the major features you should be considering when selecting your pool is its total hash rate — which is often closely related to the proportion of new blocks mined by the pool
Since the total hash rate of a pool is directly related to how quickly it discovers new blocks, this means the largest pools tend to discover a relative majority of blocks — leading to more regular rewards. However, the very largest pools also tend the have higher fees but often make up for this with sheer success and additional features.
Sometimes, some of the largest pools have a minimum hash rate requirement ù leaving some of the smaller miners left out of the loop. Although smaller pools typically have more relaxed requirements with reduced performance thresholds, these pools may be only slightly more profitable than mining solo.
Pool Fees
When choosing a suitable pool, typically one of the major considerations is its fees. Typically, most pools will charge a small fee that is deducted from your earnings and is usually around 1-2 percent — but sometimes slightly lower or higher.
There are also pools that offer 0 percent fees. However, these are often much smaller than the major pools and tend to make their money in a different way — such as through monthly subscriptions or donations.
Ideally, you will choose the pool that offers the best balance of fees to other features. Usually, the pool with the absolute lowest fees is not the best choice. Additionally, pools with the lowest fees often have the highest withdrawal minimums — making pool hopping uneconomical for most.
Usability and Features
When first starting out with Bitcoin mining, learning how to set up a pool and navigating through the settings can be a challenge. Because of this, several pools target their services to newer users by offering a simple to navigate user interface and providing detailed learning resources and prompt customer support.
However, for more experienced miners, simple pools don’t tend to offer a variety of features needed to maximize profitability. For example, although many mining pools focus their entire hash rate towards mining a single cryptocurrency, some are large enough to offer additional options — allowing users to mine other SHA256 coins such as Bitcoin Cash (BCH) or Fantom if they choose.
These pools are technically more challenging to use and mostly designed for those familiar with mining, happy to hop from coin to coin mining whichever is most profitable at the time. There are even some exchanges that automatically direct their combined hash rate at the most profitable cryptocurrency — taking the guesswork out of the equation.
bitcoin mining pool
Best Mining Pools for 2019
The Bitcoin mining pool industry has a large number of players, but the vast majority of the Bitcoin hash rate is concentrated within just a few pools. Currently, there are dozens of suitable pools to choose from — but we have selected just a few of the best to help get you started on your journey.
Slushpool was the first Bitcoin mining pool released, being launched way back in 2010 under the name “Bitcoin Pooled Mining Server.” Since then, Slushpool has grown into one of the most popular pools around — currently accounting for just under 10 percent of the total Bitcoin hash rate.
Although Slushpool isn’t one of the very largest pools, it does offer a newbie-friendly interface alongside more advanced features for those that need them. The pool has moderately high fees of 2 percent but offers servers in several countries — including the U.S., Europe, China, and Japan — giving it a good balance of fees to features.
BTC.com is another potential candidate for your pool and currently stands as the largest public Bitcoin mining pool. It is responsible for mining around 17 percent of new blocks. Being the largest public mining pool provides users with a sense of security, ensuring blocks are mined regularly and a stable income is made.
Image courtesy of Blockchain.info.
BTC.com is owned by Bitmain, a company that manufacturers mining hardware, and charges a 1.5 percent fees — placing it squarely in the middle-tier in terms of fees. Unlike other platforms, BTC.com uses its own payment structure known as FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), which means miners also receive a share of the transaction fees included within mined blocks — making it slightly more profitable than standard payment per share (PPS) pools.
Another great option is Antpool, a mining pool that supports mining services for 10 different cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Litecoin (LTC) and Ethereum (ETH). AntPool frequently trades places with BTC.com as the largest Bitcoin mining pool. However, as of this writing, it occupies the title of the third-largest public mining pool.
What sets Antpool apart from other pools is the ability to choose your own fee system — including PPS, PPS+, and PPLNS. If you choose PPLNS, using Antpool is free but you will not receive any transaction fees from any blocks mined. Antpool also offers regular payouts and has a low minimum payout of just 0.001 BTC, making it suitable for smaller miners.
Last on the list of the best Bitcoin mining pools in 2019 is the Bitcoin.com mining pool. Although this is one of the smaller pools available, the Bitcoin.com pool has some redeeming features that make it worth a look. It offers mining contracts, allowing you to test out Bitcoin mining before investing in mining equipment of your own. According to Bitcoin.com, they are the highest paying Pay Per Share (PPS) pool in the world, offering up to 98 percent block rewards as well as automatic switching between BTC and BCH mining to optimize profitability.

Electricity Costs
While your mining hardware is most important when it comes to how much BTC you can earn when mining, your electricity costs are usually the largest additional expense. With electricity costs often varying dramatically between countries, ensuring you are on the best cost-per-KWh plan available will help to keep costs down when mining.
Most commonly, large mining operations will be set up in countries where electricity costs are the lowest — such as Iceland, India, and Ukraine. Since China has one of the lowest energy costs in the world, it was previously the epicenter of Bitcoin mining. However, since the government began cracking down on cryptocurrencies, it has largely fallen out of favor with miners.
Technically, Venezuela is one of the cheapest countries in the world in terms of electricity, with the government heavily subsidizing these energy costs — while Bitcoin offers an escape from the hyperinflation suffered by the Venezuelan bolivar. Despite this, importing mining hardware into the country is a costly endeavor, making it impractical for many people.
Finding ways to lower your electricity costs is one of the best ways to improve your mining profitability. This can include investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, or wind — which can yield increased profitability over the long term.
if you are looking to buy bitcoin mining equipment here is some links:

Model Antminer S17 Pro (56Th) from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 56Th/s for a power consumption of 2385W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s17-pro-56th-copy/?wpam_id=17
Model Antminer S9K from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 14Th/s for a power consumption of 1323W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s9k-14-th-s/?wpam_id=17
Model T2T 30Tfrom Innosilicon mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 30Th/s for a power consumption of 2200W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/innosilicon-t2t-30t/?wpam_id=17
mining wholesale website:
https://miningwholesale.eu/?wpam_id=17
submitted by mohamadk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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