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The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
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In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
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As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

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The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
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The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

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Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
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  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
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At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

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The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

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Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

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Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
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Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
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Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.
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SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.
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Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

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Continuing the trend of practicality characteristic of the XXI century, paper money is gradually disappearing from our lives, giving way to more practical digital storage. However, the digitized banking that we now use every day is still far from perfect. For starters, it is completely controlled by third parties. No one owns the numbers they see on the screen — control is entirely owned by third parties, such as banks.
Banks create money out of thin air, and credit is a prime example of this. Money is no longer printed when someone takes out an overdraft or mortgage-it is simply created out of nothing. Moreover, these banks charge disproportionately high fees for the services they provide, and these services are outdated and impractical today.
For example, it is impractical to pay a Commission to spend your money abroad, as it is impractical to wait a few days to verify the transfer of a small amount from You to your relative. All this makes no sense in the interconnected and instantaneous world in which We live today.
Thus, the monetary system has ceased to be practical, it is replaced by a higher form of value storage. In this particular case, it is replaced by a faster and safer system that eliminates expensive operations and gives control to the person.
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Money that you have in your Bank account can be considered a virtual currency since it does not have a physical form and exists only in the Bank book. If they lose the book, your money will simply disappear. These are just numbers that you see on the screen. The numbers are stored on the hard drives of Bank servers.

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Do you open a regular app and think you have money? They are just bytes of the computer system. Today’s global payment infrastructure moves money from one payment system to another through a series of internal Deposit transfers between financial institutions. Since these transfers occur in different systems with a low level of coordination, the calculation of funds is slow, often 3–5 days, capturing liquidity.

How do payments work?

When you make a money transfer, for example, from your Bank card to the Bank card of a friend or acquaintance, you see an instant transfer, so to speak, moving numbers from you to the Recipient. For the user, the transfer is carried out instantly, and the exchange of obligations between the participants of the process takes place within 3–7 days, the User does not know about it and hardly ever thinks about it.

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When you make a payment at a supermarket or any other point of sale, at the time of payment, information from the POS-terminal is sent to the acquiring Bank — then the acquiring Bank sends a request that passes through the payment system (Visa or MasterCard) and then transmitted to Your Bank, which confirms the operation. At this point, there is no write-off of funds. The funds are temporarily held, and the actual withdrawal will take place within a few days, the maximum processing time is up to 30 days.
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Currency transactions and payments abroad

You may have noticed that after making a transaction in a different currency, such as yen or dirhams, or any other currency that differs from the currency of your account or buying an item abroad, the amount charged may differ from the amount that was reflected immediately after payment.

Why is this happening?

As soon As you have made a transaction with Your Bank card — the local Bank transfers the information to the payment system: Visa or MasterCard — the payment system converts the currency used into the billing currency.
Billing currency — the currency that will be used for payment with the payment system by your Bank that issued the card. For the US, the billing currency is the dollar, in Europe — the Euro.
The billing currency may also differ depending on the issuing Bank — the Bank that issued your debit card. For example, some banks use the billing currency — Euro when making payments with MasterCard cards in the United States, which will lead to additional costs when converting euros into dollars.
If the payment is in other currencies, the payment scheme will become more complicated and, accordingly, its cost will be more expensive. The transfer rate from one settlement currency to another is set by the payment system: Visa and MasterCard.
If the currency of your Bankcard is the same as the currency of the payment system, the payment will take place without additional operations. For example, You have a dollar card, you make a payment in dollars in the United States, and if you make a payment with a dollar card in Europe, your Bank will convert the amount at its exchange rate, which will lead to additional costs. There are exceptions, some European banks can use dollars for settlements, but this is more an exception than a rule.
Also, if, for example, you pay for purchases in China using a Bank card in euros, then double conversion is inevitable.
Thus, payment in dollars is universal all over the world, except for the European Union countries. The dollar is a global currency and is therefore often used for binding in international settlements.
Now we understand that due to differences in the account currency and the differences in the VISA or MasterCard payment system, additional conversions may occur, which will lead to additional bank fees. as a result, the actual payment amount will differ from the amount debited from your card.
In addition to paying for conversion in the payment system and paying for currency conversion in your Bank, some banks charge an additional fee for conducting a cross-border transaction.

Where do we lose money when making debit card payments?


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  1. Currency conversion by the payment system;
  2. Euro-Dollar, or in the case of processing payment via MasterCard in Turkey, Turkish lira-Euro and additional conversion on the side of the issuing Bank (your Bank) Euro — Dollar.
  3. Currency conversion by an acquiring bank;
  4. The difference between the exchange rate on the purchase date and the write-off date. We purchased at a rate of 0.91 euros per dollar, and the write-off occurred at a rate of 0.94 euros per dollar.
  5. A large number of currency conversions.
  6. The greater the number of them, the more we will lose when buying. For example, when paying in the UAE or China, buying a product for the local currency, we understand that the number of conversions increases several times.
If we touch on the topic of international translations, we will encounter additional nuances:
  • This is the payment processing time. International payments can be processed within 3–5 days, as mentioned above, which in our dynamic time — it interferes with the comfortable use of the system.
  • Restrictions on the amounts;
  • Possible requirements for certain documentation for payment confirmation;
  • Additional fees and commissions, sometimes hidden fees.
It is not always possible to make a transfer quickly and when necessary due to these restrictions. All this confirms the complexity of the operations and additional commissions that the user pays.

Сryptocurrency exchanges

And now back to the numbers on the screen, this topic affects not only banks but also centralized cryptocurrency exchanges:
  • You top up your Deposit on the exchange in cryptocurrency-then you use numbers inside the exchange, and real funds are most often stored on “cold storage” for which administrators or other responsible persons are responsible.
  • Only when you make a withdrawal from the exchange to your wallet-you are sent real funds (tokens or cryptocurrency).
The same applies to centralized applications and online services that deal with cryptocurrencies:
There are many services, both online and apps, that are centralized, regardless of what they will be called: Bitcoin wallet or bitcoin exchange. This means that when you add funds to an account in such a wallet, the funds are stored on the developecompany’s side. In simple words, all your funds are stored in the wallets of the system’s creators.
If you use a centralized app, you have a risk of losing funds. Although the application is called cryptocurrency, it does not affect its main principles — it is decentralization.
In other words, using systems where there is a Central authority, especially in the cryptocurrency market — the risk increases, so we recommend using decentralized systems for storing currency to reduce risks to a minimum.
Decentralization is the process of redistributing, dispersing functions, forces, power, people, or things from a Central location or governing body. Centralization is a condition in which the right to make the most important decisions remains with the highest levels of management.

Peer-to-peer payment systems

The opposite and standard of security and independence are peer-to-peer payment systems. Using the application-level network Protocol, clients running on multiple computers connect to form a peer-to-peer network.

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There are no dedicated servers in such a network, and each node is both a client and performs server functions. In contrast to the client-server architecture, this organization allows you to maintain the network operability with any number and any combination of available nodes. All nodes are members of the network.

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Tkeycoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer payment system based on p2p principles and the concept of electronic cash. P2P technology is a fairer means of mutual settlements between users and companies around the world. Modern payment systems are imperfect and may depend on the will of high-ranking officials.
The main goal of Tkeycoin is to create universal products that will make financial transactions more accessible, profitable and secure.

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What do decentralized systems protect against?

Using decentralized tools, for example, a local Tkeycoin wallet or a Multi-currency blockchain tkeyspace wallet — Your funds belong only to You and only You can use them, which eliminates the risks of third-party bankruptcy, and such a decentralized architecture can also protect against natural disasters. Given that there is no central server that can be damaged in a natural disaster, the system can work even if there are 2 nodes.

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In addition to force majeure situations, you protect your funds from theft and any sanctions from third parties-in our time, this is very important. The owner of Tkeycoin does not need Bank branches, does not need additional verifications, and does not need permission to use, transfer, or even transport Tkeycoin. You can easily carry $1 million worth of Tkeycoin in your pocket and even in theory not know any troubles.

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Besides, it is extremely convenient and safe to store even multibillion-dollar capital in Tkeycoin. Imagine that you have a lot, a lot of money, and you need a safe place to store it. Where do you apply? Of course, the Swiss Bank, Yes, but it can easily freeze your accounts and you can easily lose your savings. In recent years, many banks are actively fighting against gray non-cash funds (including offshore ones), and every month more and more legal proceedings are organized on this basis.

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The fact is that serious money, for the most part, has a gray tinge, and only a tiny fraction of billions and millions are clean for the law. That is why their owners are often called to court, subjected to pressure, forced to leave the country, and so on. If your money is stored in Tkeycoin, you will not be subjected to such pressure and will avoid the lion’s share of troubles that usually accompany accounts with many zeros.
Using peer-to-peer systems — you will not be called by a Bank Manager and require documents or a fraudster who asks for Your card number and SMS for confirmation. This is simply not the case, wallets are encrypted, and using different addresses guarantees privacy.
As for fees for transfers, there are no Visa or Mastercard payment systems, as well as additional fees that we discussed above.

How are payments made in the Tkeycoin peer-to-peer payment system?


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As soon as you sign a transaction, it is sent to the blockchain and the miners are engaged in its confirmation, for which they take a symbolic Commission. Let’s look at an example, the key rate is $1, the transfer fee will be 0.00001970 TKEY or 0.00000174 TKEY.
0.00001970 TKEY=$0.00001970 0.00000174 TKEY=$0.00000174
Accordingly, commissions are almost zero. In Europe, on average, you will pay $15–20 for a small Bank transfer.
For example, now sending 1 million dollars to BTC, You will pay a Commission in the area of ≈3–8 dollars. Just think, 1 million dollars, without restrictions, risks, and sanctions, and most importantly, the transaction will be the available day today, and you paid an average of ≈5 dollars for the transfer.

Transactions in the Tkeycoin blockchain

Now let’s touch on the topic of how a transaction in the blockchain goes. Once you have sent a transaction, it will be available to the Recipient. The transaction takes place instantly and the User sees not” numbers on the screen”, but real funds-cryptocurrency. This is very convenient when you make any transactions and the Recipient needs to make sure that the payment came.
In the full node-there is a choice of confirmation blocks — this is the amount after which you can use the received cryptocurrency. When sending, you can select the number of confirmations:
• 2 blocks≈10 minutes • 4 block≈40 minutes • 6 blocks≈60 minutes • 12 blocks≈120 minutes • 24 blocks≈4 hours • 48 blocks≈8 hours • 144 blocks≈24 hours • 504 blocks≈3 days • 1008 blocks≈7 days
As we can see, you can also set a weekly confirmation if necessary. The minimum recommended number is 3 blocks. by default, the full node (local wallet) has 6 blocks installed. The presence of this number of confirmations ensures that Your block will not be forged and will be accepted by the network.
Each new transaction that receives network approval is sent to mempool, where it waits for miners to confirm it. When a miner takes a transaction to include it in the next block, it automatically receives the first confirmation.

Generating blocks in the TKEY network

A block in the TKEY network is generated within 6–10 minutes. the network automatically corrects the complexity and time of block formation. Thousands of transactions or a single transaction can be placed in a block.

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Transactions work faster in the TKEYSPACE app because we have already enabled new algorithms and this is now the fastest and most convenient way to exchange various digital currencies.

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Anyway, using the full node is also one of the safest ways to store and send Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, and most importantly, the full node stores a full copy of the entire blockchain, which benefits the network and provides protection from information forgery.
The more popular the project becomes, the more load is placed on the network itself. For example, 10,000 transactions passed in one block that was processed quickly, while the other 10–20 transactions in another block hung for a longer time, so temporary “pits” may appear. To deal with them, we are working on implementing additional chains-separate chains that are created for cross-transactions, which ensures fast payments under heavy load.
For the global system — we get a shipment around the world in 6–10 minutes, in cross-chains in 10 seconds. In comparison with the global payment system, which processes cross — border payments within 3–5 days, this is a huge advantage. If we add liquidity to this, we will get a perfect payment system.
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Also, you should not forget that if you did not sync with the network and sent a transaction, the transaction may hang in its memory pool and you will have to perform several actions to solve this situation. Here we must understand that syncing with the network is an important point because if you have a connection failure in the Internet Bank, the payment will also not be processed. After all, it will not be sent to a specialist for confirmation.
If you are currently experiencing any delays with transactions, this is due to the transition of CPU mining to GPU, as soon as miners switch to new mining methods, the confirmation of blocks will be consistently fast.
In conclusion: blockchain is a new technology and many terms, concepts and how it all works are still difficult for many to understand and this is normal from innovation.
In many countries, the word cryptocurrency and blockchain are synonymous and no one wants to understand the reality, most people believe that if the blockchain, it means it is related to trading on the cryptocurrency exchange. No one thinks about the real usefulness of certain solutions that will become commonplace for Us in the future.
For example, the Internet banking system dates back to the ’80s of the last century, when the Home Banking system was created in the United States. This system allowed depositors to check their accounts by connecting to the Bank’s computer via their phone. In the future, as the Internet and Internet technologies develop, banks are beginning to introduce systems that allow depositors to get information about their accounts via the Internet. For the first time, the service of transferring funds from accounts was introduced in 1994 in the United States by the Stanford Federal Credit Union, and in 1995 the first virtual Bank was created — Security First Network Bank. But, to the disappointment of the founders of the project, it failed because of strong distrust from potential customers, who, at that time, did not trust such an innovation.
Only in 2001, Bank of America became the first among all banks that provide e-banking services, the whole user base for this service exceeded 2 million customers. At that time, this figure was about 20 % of all Bank customers. And in October of the same year, 2001, and the same Bank of America took the bar in 3 million money transfers made using online banking services for a total amount of more than 1 billion US dollars. Currently, in Western Europe and America, more than 50% of the entire adult population uses e-banking services, and this figure reaches 90% among adult Internet users.
Life changes, and in the bustle of everyday work — we do not even notice how quickly all processes change.
We are experiencing a technological revolution that is inevitable.

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submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
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In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
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As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

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The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
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The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

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Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
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  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
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At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

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The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

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Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

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Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
Overledger Network — Network of Networks

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
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Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.

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SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.

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Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

NordVPN Review - Honest Review

EDIT: Nord is having a 75% off sale AND All plans have 30-day money-back guarantee You can claim that deal by using our special link! @ www.buy-nord.com
NordVPN has been growing at a very fast pace since launching in 2012, and it’s now one of the largest VPN services on the market with over 12 million customers worldwide (according to NordVPN themselves).
NordVPN has grown so much that it now claims to be the “best VPN service provider of 2019” but we all know that’s easier said than done, right?
We needed to understand how good NordVPN really is and answer questions our readers have been asking us:
But before we dive into it, let's take a quick look at NordVPN’s pros and cons:
Pros
Cons
Works with
Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, BBC iPlayer, Sky, HBO, Torrenting, Kodi
Available on
Windows Mac Ios Android Linux Price from
$2.99/mo
Still, want to know more about NordVPN and whether it’s the right VPN for you?
We’ve carefully tested every single NordVPN app so you can rest assured that we left no stone unturned.
Without further ado, let's get right into this review starting with NordVPN’s speed.
Speed & Reliability Very fast speeds across the world
NordVPN is a very fast VPN – as long as you connect to nearby VPN servers.
It’s not the fastest VPN there is (these VPNs are currently faster), but NordVPN is still very quick and you won’t experience any speed issues.
Both same-country (UK server to UK server) download and upload speeds are impressive, with minimal internet slowdown (around a 5-6% drop from our normal internet speeds).
This makes NordVPN a very good choice for both streaming fans and torrenters.
Speed results from our physical location in London (100Mbps fibre optic connection) to a London test server.
Before using NordVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 94.83
UPLOAD Mbps 91.8
PING ms 3
When connected to NordVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 90.51
UPLOAD Mbps 86.28
PING ms 5
Download speed without NordVPN: 94.83Mbps
Download speed with NordVPN: 90.51Mbps
Our download speed loss when NordVPN is running: 5%
As you can see, NordVPN registered very impressive speeds when we connected to a nearby VPN server. It’s less impressive – but still very usable – over long-distance connections, though.
Here are the average download and upload speeds connecting out from the UK to NordVPN’s servers:
USA: 47Mbps (download) & 48Mbps (upload) Germany: 78Mbps (download) & 77Mbps (upload) Singapore: 17Mbps (download) & 6Mbps (upload) Australia: 22Mbps (download) & 3Mbps (upload) Ping times are also fairly low on most of NordVPN’s servers, which is good for gaming although there are better VPNs available to gamers.
Server Locations Over 5,600 VPN servers spread across 60 countries worldwide
Globe with a blue flag 60 Countries Image of a city landscape 90+ Cities Image of a pink marker 5,600+ IP Addresses See all Server Locations NordVPN’s server list covers 60 countries – it isn’t the widest VPN server range we’ve seen, but it should almost certainly ensure there is a server located near you.
Screenshot of NordVPN Server List in App
NordVPN provides a whopping 5,600 VPN servers, none of which are virtual, with each server given a static IP address. This is the highest number of VPN servers provided by a top VPN service, which is impressive. Even better, NordVPN owns all of the servers in its network.
NordVPN’s server network covers all of the popular server locations such as the UK, the US, Australia, and Canada, as well as less common locations including Argentina, Egypt, and Albania.
NordVPN provides city-level server choices in five different countries, too:
Australia (five locations, 200+ servers) Canada (three locations, 400+ servers) Germany (two locations, 200+ servers) India (two locations, 20+ servers) The US (20 locations, 1,800+ servers) NordVPN used to offer city-level choice in the UK (London and Manchester) but recently removed the Manchester VPN servers as “their performance was lacking.” NordVPN have added even more servers in London in order to ensure the best speeds for those located in the UK.
Streaming & Torrenting An excellent choice for streaming & torrenting
Thanks to its SmartPlay technology, NordVPN consistently works with popular streaming services like Netflix and BBC iPlayer.
To watch Netflix, simply click on the US or UK VPN country server and the NordVPN app will automatically find the best option for you.
NordVPN also unlocks loads more Netflix libraries, including Canada, Japan, France, Italy, and Germany.
Not all of NordVPN’s UK servers provide access to BBC iPlayer, but a quick message to live chat will let you know which ones are currently working.
That will save you the trial-and-error of testing out all of NordVPN’s hundreds of UK servers. This is a big plus, as many other VPN providers can’t unlock BBC iPlayer.
Unrestricted access to streaming services doesn’t stop there. Many of NordVPN’s customers use the VPN service to stream:
Amazon Prime Video Hulu HBO Sling TV Sky Now TV Torrenting Torrenting (and other P2P traffic) isn’t allowed on every single NordVPN server, but there’s still more than enough server choice to keep torrenters and Kodi streamers happy.
You can torrent while connected to almost every country on NordVPN’s server list – these are listed under ‘Speciality Servers’ within in the app settings.
However, the following countries do not permit P2P:
Argentina Costa Rica Chile Cyrpus Egypt Georgia Indonesia Malaysia South Korea Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Ukraine United Arab Emirates If you attempt to torrent while connected to a VPN server that doesn’t support P2P NordVPN will simply re-route your traffic through a dedicated server located in either Canada or the Netherlands.
With plenty of added security features – such as its VPN kill switch – and a no-logs policy, NordVPN is without a doubt one of the safest VPNs for torrenting. Fast uploads and downloads make it a great choice too.
Bypassing Censorship Obfuscated VPN servers work in China intermittently
Since the VPN crackdown in China, NordVPN has become a little less reliable for residents or visitors in China, but it’s still a pretty good choice of VPN.
Users have reported that NordVPN’s obfuscated servers often bypass the Chinese censors, but others have experienced difficulties connecting to them.
NordVPN’s obfuscated servers are spread out fairly evenly, with options in North America, North Africa, Asia, and Europe, so you shouldn’t be too far away from one.
There are no obfuscated VPN servers available on the NordVPN iOS app, though, so iPhone users may struggle to connect from China without some manual configuration.
See our latest VPN recommendations if you’re looking for a reliable VPN for China, or you can read our ExpressVPN review or our VyprVPN review, two of our top choices.
That’s just China, though – in other high censorship countries like Saudi Arabia and Russia NordVPN remains a solid VPN choice to bypass censorship.
Platforms & Devices Protect all your devices with a wide range of custom VPN apps
Apps Windows Logo Windows Mac Logo Mac iOS Logo iOS Android Logo Android Linux Logo Linux Router Logo Router NordVPN has simple native VPN apps for all major operating systems:
Windows macOS iOS Android Linux (yes, even Linux) If your device is not compatible with the custom apps above, you can also install NordVPN on your router.
What’s more, you can use NordVPN on up to six devices at the same time using just one VPN subscription, which is one of the highest allowances we’ve seen.
Games Consoles & Streaming Devices AppleTV Logo AppleTV Amazon Fire TV Logo Amazon Fire TV Chromecast Logo Chromecast Nintendo Logo Nintendo PlayStation Logo PlayStation Roku Logo Roku Xbox Logo Xbox NordVPN has an Android TV app, meaning you can use the VPN app with streaming devices such as Android TV and the Amazon Fire TV Stick without any manual configuration.
In fact, NordVPN is one of the best VPNs for the Fire TV although it is not our top recommendation. If you own a Firestick and want to use a VPN app with it, take a look at our roundup of the best VPNs for Fire TV and Fire TV Stick.
If you want to run NordVPN on your other streaming devices or games consoles like Xbox and PlayStation, though, you’ll need to install it at router level. It’s not too difficult and it means that all devices connected to the router will be protected.
Browser Extensions Chrome Logo Chrome Firefox Logo Firefox NordVPN provides VPN extensions for Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.
These VPN add-ons encrypt your browser traffic, but protection ends there so we always suggest using NordVPN’s extensions in conjunction with the main VPN application or client.
The extensions also have an in-built WebRTC leak blocker, which is an extremely useful bonus.
NordVPN doesn’t yet have VPN extensions for Safari or Opera browsers.
Encryption & Security Secure VPN with advanced features but lacking protocol flexibility
Protocol IKEv2/IPSec
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)
WireGuard
Encryption AES-256
Security DNS Leak Blocking
First-party DNS
Supports TCP Port 443
VPN Kill Switch
WebRTC Leak Blocking
Advanced features Double VPN
TOR via VPN Server
Please see our VPN Glossary if these terms confuse you and would like to learn more.
NordVPN has only one choice of VPN protocol by default, but it’s our personal favourite: OpenVPN. The iOS and macOS apps (available to download directly from the Apple App Store) run on IKEv2, though.
OpenVPN provides the perfect blend of speed and security. It encrypts all your internet traffic using the ‘unhackable’ AES-256 cypher.
Screenshot of NordVPN Settings Menu in App
You can also use IKEv2 with NordVPN’s Windows and Android apps if you like, but it requires an extra download and a lot of advanced setup (manual configuration).
The VPN kill switch feature protects your IP address in the event of a connection drop, and NordVPN’s privately owned and operated DNS servers ensure end-to-end protection.
NordVPN provides Double VPN (multi-hop) and Tor over VPN (Onion over VPN) for extra encryption.
As with all the VPN providers we review, we carried out extensive testing to find IP and DNS leaks when using NordVPN and we are happy to report that we found no leaks whatsoever.
Screenshot of browserleaks.com test results for NordVPN Leak test results on browserleaks.com while connected to a NordVPN US server. We test from the UK.
NordVPN has recently released a new technology for Linux users called NordLynx that’s based on the WireGuard VPN protocol.
WireGuard is a new VPN protocol that aims to be faster and more secure than the current standards, but it’s still in development so should be considered experimental at this point.
Logging Policy No-logs VPN in a privacy-friendly jurisdiction
NordVPN doesn’t log your traffic or store any user logs, making it a safe and trustworthy VPN.
Here’s a comprehensive list of all the information it does collect:
Server loads That is the full extent of the information NordVPN collects, making it a true no-logs VPN. Server loads are monitored to maintain the optimal performance of VPN servers for users, and nothing else.
Your privacy is upheld above all else, and NordVPN absolutely will not sell your personal data to any third parties.
Jurisdiction NordVPN was founded in 2012 is operated by Tefincom & Co S.A. which is headquartered under the legal jurisdiction of Panama, putting it beyond the reach of US and EU data retention laws.
Panama does not require VPN companies to store or report any of their data, nor is it part of any agreements that compel it to share information with other countries.
Being based in Panama gives NordVPN the power to deny any third-party data requests, so there is absolutely no way that any of your online activity can be traced back to you.
In 2018, NordVPN came under some heat as it was accused of not being headquartered in Panama. The reason for the controversy is that when you purchased NordVPN on Google Play Store, at the time the Seller of NordVPN was listed as CloudVPN INC. (a company registered in the US), and not Tefincom & Co S.A.
It turns out that CloudVPN INC. is a payment processor and NordVPN was simply using it to handle payments, similarly to how other VPN providers use payment processing companies to manage these type of transactions.
Ease of Use Quick and easy setup with simple custom apps
How to Install & Set Up NordVPN Screenshot of NordVPN Download Button Downloading the software is as simple as going to Nord's website and clicking the download button for the appropriate platform.
Screenshot of NordVPN Installation Progress You can check the progress of your installation here, which usually only takes a couple of minutes at most.
Screenshot of NordVPN App Login Screen Once the software is installed, all that's left to do is log into the app and you're ready to go.
Screenshot of NordVPN Desktop App Main Screen The main NordVPN app view with server locations to the left, which are also presented as pins on the map.
Screenshot of NordVPN Specialty Servers On the left-hand side of the app, you can see the full list of server locations and speciality servers for P2P, Double VPN, etc.
Screenshot of NordVPN City-Level Servers Hover over a country name and click on the three horizontal dots that appear in order to select a city-level server.
Screenshot of NordVPN Connected Screen You will know when NordVPN is working because the server location you are connected to and your new IP address will be displayed at the bottom of the app.
Screenshot of NordVPN General App Settings You can find the general settings by clicking 'Settings' at the top of the app. These consist of simple toggles for general settings, including the VPN kill switch.
Screenshot of NordVPN Advanced App Settings Scroll down to the bottom of the settings menu to find the advanced options. After confirming that you know what you're doing, you can toggle between TCP/UDP and use obfuscated servers.
The NordVPN website has comprehensive VPN setup guides for whatever platform you happen to be using, but it’s unlikely you’ll ever need them.
All of NordVPN’s custom VPN apps run smoothly and are almost entirely self-explanatory.
If you want to play around with advanced settings then you’re welcome to do that too – they’re clearly labelled and the app even warns you not to do so unless you know what you’re doing.
Browser Extensions Screenshot of NordVPN Chrome Extension
It couldn’t be much easier to set up NordVPN’s browser extensions – just go to the Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox store and download the add-on to your browser.
Once you’ve logged on you can choose a server and connect. We’d recommend enabling ‘Block WebRTC’ from the settings menu to prevent any potential IP leaks.
Customer Support Helpful live chat support & useful online resources
24/7 Live chat support Online Resources NordVPN provides excellent quality customer support both through its extensive knowledge base and via online live chat.
Email support isn’t as good and we’ve found responses to be slow at times. There is really no reason to email customer support, though, as NordVPN’s live chat service is 24/7.
Encounter any issues? NordVPN running slow, perhaps? No problem – support agents respond quickly and are extremely friendly and helpful, managing to fix most of our VPN issues within a couple of minutes.
NordVPN’s troubleshooting guides are very useful, too, covering a variety of potential VPN issues and providing a range of possible solutions.
Pricing & Deals Fantastic value for money on longer plans
NordVPN Coupon NordVPN logo NordVPN
Get 58% off NordVPN's 12-month plan
TestedEnds 1 Sep Get Code10 Terms NordVPN Pricing Plan NordVPN is one of the best VPN services on the market, and it’s not very expensive at all. Also, every NordVPN price plan offers exactly the same VPN features.
NordVPN costs a fairly pricey $11.95 if you pay month-by-month, but the price drops by almost half to $6.99 a month for annual plans.
For the biggest savings, NordVPN’s three-year special deal costs just $2.99 per month, a saving of 75%.
Monthly
US$11.95/mo
Billed $11.95 every month 12 Months
US$6.99/mo
Billed $83.88 every 12 months Save 41% 2 Years
US$3.99/mo
Billed $95.75 every 2 years Save 66% 3 Years
US$2.99/mo
Billed $107.55 every 3 years Save 75% All plans have 30-day money-back guarantee This is the best option available, $107 for 3 years coverage is unbeatable in the VPN sector. You can claim that deal by using our special link! @ www.buy-nord.com Payment & Refund Options NordVPN accepts a few different payment options, but it recently made the decision to stop accepting PayPal. The VPN service now uses Adyen for credit card payments, which it claims offers a greater level of privacy for customers due to its self-contained nature.
Here are the accepted payment methods, which include some cryptocurrencies for those seeking higher levels of privacy:
Credit and debit cards Direct debit Amazon Pay Bitcoin Ethereum Ripple Alipay UnionPay
NordVPN no longer comes with a free VPN trial, but it does offer a 30-day money-back guarantee.
You can cancel your NordVPN subscription within 30 days by contacting the customer support team through live chat. You will have to go through a troubleshooting process first, but the refund should be processed within 10 business days.
submitted by Zinkzd to VPNsReddit [link] [comments]

CyberGhost Review - Easiest to use VPN

CyberGhost VPN is one of the most established VPN services around. It was founded by Robert Knapp in 2011, and it quickly became one of the most popular free VPNs.
CyberGhost currently has over 30 million users and its popularity keeps growing but the question is, how does it compare to other top VPN providers?
In this review you will learn what is good and what is not so good about CyberGhost, and you will find answers to popular questions like:
Is using CyberGhost safe? Is it legal and does it really work? Does CyberGhost still have a free version? Does it work with Netflix? Is torrenting & P2P allowed? Before we answer all these questions (and many more), lets first examine CyberGhost VPN’s pros and cons:
Pros
Fast speeds: 64Mbps (global average) Unlocks Netflix, BBC iPlayer & other streaming sites Optimized servers for torrenting/P2P traffic Strong logging policy & no IP/DNS/WebRTC leaks User-friendly apps for PC, Mac, iOS, & Android Great server network across 60 countries Cons Torrenting not available on US & Australia servers Doesn't work in high censorship countries Not recommended for Kodi 14-day refund guarantee on 1-month plan Works with
Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, BBC iPlayer, Sky, HBO, Torrenting
Available on
Windows Mac Ios Android Linux Price from
$2.75/mo
As you can see CyberGhost is without a doubt an impressive VPN, but there are a few drawbacks that you need to know about in more detail.
Lets start off our in-depth review by looking at how fast CyberGhost really is.
Speed & Reliability Very fast speeds, especially for same-country connections
CyberGhost will match almost any VPN service for fast download and upload speeds, but what it occasionally lacks is consistency.
CyberGhost VPN’s same-country (for example, London to London) download and upload speeds are impressive and reliable, but CyberGhost users connecting to international servers may notice a drop-off in speed, with ping times also increasing.
Speed results from our physical location in London (100Mbps fibre optic connection) to a London test server.
Before using CyberGhost:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 95
UPLOAD Mbps 97
PING ms 2
When connected to CyberGhost:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 54
UPLOAD Mbps 77
PING ms 13
Download speed without CyberGhost: 95 Mbps
Download speed with CyberGhost: 54 Mbps
Our download speed loss when CyberGhost is running: 43%
We put all of the VPNs on the site through a rigorous scientific speed testing process, determining the average speeds from multiple locations across the globe. These are the average speeds you can expect to pick up from these locations:
USA: 51Mpbs (download) & 41Mbps (upload) Germany: 78Mbps (download) & 74Mbps (upload) Singapore: 28Mpbs (download) & 15Mbps (upload) Australia: 32Mbps (download) & 7Mbps (upload)
Server Locations 4,600 servers around the world
Globe with a blue flag 60 Countries Image of a city landscape 84 Cities Image of a pink marker 4,680+ IP Addresses See all Server Locations CyberGhost’s servers cover the whole world, with great server coverage in Europe and North America.
A choice of over 4,680 servers is paired with a similar number of IP addresses.
Screenshot of CyberGhost VPN server locations in Windows app
4,600 servers is a very good number, and one of the highest server counts on the market. While it’s considerably less than NordVPN‘s 5,000 plus servers, it is still a very high number of VPN servers.
Similarly to IPVanish, CyberGhost owns all of its DNS servers meaning that it doesn’t rely on rented servers to provide VPN connections.
The countries with the most CyberGhost servers are the US (1085), Germany (608), France (324), the UK (665) and Canada (223).
At city-level, CyberGhost covers 13 different US locations, and 3 locations in Australia, Canada and the UK.
Streaming & Torrenting Great for Netflix, Torrenting and More
CyberGhost provides many dedicated Netflix servers, which is great. They are very east to find in the app and we’ve never had any issues unblocking Netflix when using CyberGhost VPN.
CyberGhost has also its own dedicated BBC iPlayer server, too, and CyberGhost is currently our highest-recommended VPN for BBC iPlayer.
That’s not all, though. CyberGhost subscribers also report that they can successfully stream:
Amazon Prime Video Hulu HBO Sling TV Sky Now TV PlayStation Vue Torrenting CyberGhost is also a good choice for torrenting, although there are a couple of caveats:
It doesn’t allow torrenting on its US or Australian servers Torrenting on mobile is a hassle compared to Windows and macOS applications You can torrent from mobile while using CyberGhost if you check and select the existing P2P servers on the desktop app or on the website. P2P torrenting is allowed on mobile, but there is no tab to find out which work.
If you’re ok with these P2P limitations, then CyberGhost is a safe, fast and reliable VPN for torrenting. CyberGhost doesn’t log, it has a VPN kill switch and when we checked for IP/DNS leaks, we found none.
If however the torrenting limitations above are putting you off, then take a look at our best VPNs for torrenting.
Bypassing Censorship No good for China and highly censored countries
We can’t recommend CyberGhost as a VPN to use in high censorship countries, as it simply can’t guarantee to bypass aggressive web censors.
Unfortunately CyberGhost doesn’t have the obfuscation tools that make ExpressVPN and VyprVPN better VPN services to beat online censorship in countries like China, the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Iran.
CyberGhost even warns that you use of a VPN in certain countries is forbidden and CyberGhost VPN shouldn’t be used in these nations. CyberGhost does mention that workarounds to make its VPN work in these countries are available, but that you shouldn’t try them.
Basically, CyberGhost doesn’t want people to use its VPN in countries where VPNs are not legal.
Platforms & Devices Compatible with popular devices, including routers
Apps Windows Logo Windows Mac Logo Mac iOS Logo iOS Android Logo Android Linux Logo Linux Router Logo Router Whatever your device or operating system, CyberGhost has you covered with either a custom VPN app, or a manual workaround for you to configure your device and use CyberGhost VPN with it.
CyberGhost VPN is compatible with all Windows, macOS, iOS and Android devices.
You can also use CyberGhost on multiple devices at once, up to 7 in total (depending on the plan chosen).
Games Consoles & Streaming Devices AppleTV Logo AppleTV Amazon Fire TV Logo Amazon Fire TV Chromecast Logo Chromecast Nintendo Logo Nintendo PlayStation Logo PlayStation Roku Logo Roku Xbox Logo Xbox You can also use CyberGhost with a range of gaming consoles and streaming devices, by installing the VPN onto your home router and connecting the devices to it.
You can also piggyback off the CyberGhost VPN connection from another device running the CyberGhost app, such as your laptop.
The recent addition of a native VPN app for the Amazon Fire TV Stick is also a big plus.
Browser Extensions Chrome Logo Chrome Firefox Logo Firefox CyberGhost has VPN browser extensions available for Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox. These extensions are entirely free but, regardless of whether or not you’re a paying customer, you’ll only get access to eight servers in four locations (2 servers each) through them: United States, Germany, Romania and the Netherlands.
These VPN add-ons are only proxies though, so they will only protect your web traffic. We recommend you use CyberGhost’s VPN extensions with the main VPN application or VPN client at all times.
Encryption & Security One of the best VPNs for security
Protocol IKEv2/IPSec
L2TP/IPSec
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)
PPTP
Encryption AES-256
Security DNS Leak Blocking
First-party DNS
IPV6 Leak Blocking
VPN Kill Switch
Advanced features Split Tunneling
TOR via VPN Server
Please see our VPN Glossary if these terms confuse you and would like to learn more.
CyberGhost is an excellent choice for privacy, with one of the most advanced security suites of any VPN available today.
The CyberGhost apps default to our favorite protocol, OpenVPN, and it encrypts your web data traffic with the ultra-secure AES-256 encryption and has a kill switch to make sure your identity stays protected in the event of a connection drop.
Rest assured that your true location is safe and hidden with CyberGhost: we ran several IP or DNS leak tests and we found no leaks.
Logging Policy Based in EU but no logs policy assures privacy
This is a list of all the anonymous information that CyberGhost collects (taken from their logging policy):
“CyberGhost VPN records the log-in of an anonymous account for statistical purposes. We do this once a day (all other log-ins will be ignored) and sum up each daily log-in for one month. The daily log-in data will be deleted after 24 hours, the monthly sum at the end of each month.”
CyberGhost claims that this data is the bare minimum required to keep its VPN service running optimally.
CyberGhost’s logging policy makes it clear that no personally identifiable information is collected and therefore there is nothing stored on CyberGhost’s servers that could be used to identify you, should anyone ever seize their servers.
Excerpt from CyberGhost Logging Policy Excerpt from CyberGhost Logging Policy
Jurisdiction CyberGhost VPN is operated by the Romanian company CyberGhost SA, which was acquired by Kape Technologies PLC (previously known as Crossrider) in 2017.
The fact that CyberGhost is headquartered in Romania may seem less than ideal since Romania is part of the EU which has aggressive data-retention and sharing agreements in place with other nations.
However we are not concerned by where CyberGhost is located given that it doesn’t collect any personally identifiable connection data.
CyberGhost is a VPN you can trust with your online privacy.
Ease of Use Extremely easy to use
How to Install & Set Up CyberGhost CyberGhost download in our CyberGhost VPN review Find the relevant software on CyberGhost's website and click 'Download'.
CyberGhost download in our CyberGhost VPN review #2 OPT Follow the simple installation prompts and agree to the Terms and Conditions.
CyberGhost login in our CyberGhost VPN review The app will automatically open once installation is complete. Simply type in your login details.
CyberGhost connected screen in our CyberGhost VPN review After connecting the main screen will show the time you've been connected, your chosen server location, and new IP address.
CyberGhost main screen in our CyberGhost VPN review The main screen is compact and simple, with a connect button in the middle and your chosen server location below.
CyberGhost connected screen in our CyberGhost VPN review After connecting the main screen will show the time you've been connected, your chosen server location, and new IP address.
CyberGhost main screen in our CyberGhost VPN review The main screen is compact and simple, with a connect button in the middle and your chosen server location below.
CyberGhost connected screen in our CyberGhost VPN review After connecting the main screen will show the time you've been connected, your chosen server location, and new IP address.
CyberGhost extended screen and server list in our CyberGhost VPN review Click on the arrows in the bottom left to open up the extended app interface. Here you can see the full server locations list and choose optimized servers.
CyberGhost settings in our CyberGhost VPN review Click the cog symbol to open up the setting menu where you can change the VPN protocol and switch on leak protection.
CyberGhost connection features in our CyberGhost VPN review Under the Connection Features tab you can activate the ad blocker feature and other privacy extras.
CyberGhost split tunneling in our CyberGhost VPN review Click the Smart Rules tab to the left and then Exceptions. Here you can decide which apps you'd like to route outside of the VPN tunnel.
CyberGhost is still one of the easiest VPNs to use, even with all of its bells and whistles.
Menus in the apps are clearly labeled and come with helpful contextual tooltips.
There’s even a set of demonstrative videos on the CyberGhost website that show you just how simple its VPN apps are.
Browser Extensions CyberGhost’s browser extensions couldn’t be simpler. You just have to click the icon and select a location.
Customer Support Live chat and extensive troubleshooting
24/7 Live chat support Online Resources The round-the-clock live chat support agents are always friendly and responsive, usually managing to solve our queries in a matter of minutes.
There’s a good chance you won’t ever need to use live support, though, as the online troubleshooting guides are pretty comprehensive.
Pricing & Deals A great value VPN made very cheap with long-term plan
CyberGhost Coupon CyberGhost logo CyberGhost
Get 79% off CyberGhost's 3-year plan
TestedEnds 31 Aug Get CodeED Terms CyberGhost Pricing Plan CyberGhost used to provide a free VPN service, however that is no longer the case.
At its very cheapest, CyberGhost costs $2.75 per month – a 79% saving – but this requires a 3-year commitment. We think it’s worth the money, but if you don’t want to commit for 3 years then a monthly subscription plan jumps to $12.99 per month while a 6-month plan will cost $7.99 per month (a 39% saving).
CyberGhost has a 45-day money-back guarantee in place, which is one of the longest we’ve come across, but it only applies to subscriptions of six months or longer – one-month subscriptions have a 14-day refund guarantee.
There are no hidden catches or restrictions. If you want your money back then CyberGhost will refund you in 5-10 working days. To get a refund, simply contact CyberGhost support (live chat or email) and request a refund before the 45-days are up. You may be asked to fill in a short survey.
CyberGhost also offers a one-day free trial (or seven days for mobile devices). The free trial grants you the full VPN experience with no personal or payment details asked for. A handy pop-up will remind you of your remaining runtime every time you use the VPN service.
Monthly
US$12.99/mo
Billed $12.99 each month 6 Months
US$7.99/mo
Billed $47.94 every 6 months Save 39% 3 Years
US$2.75/mo
Billed $99.00 every 3 years Save 79% All plans have 45-day money-back guarantee
Payment & Refund Options Credit Card PayPal Bitcoin CyberGhost accepts a range of payment options including most major credit cards, PayPal and Bitcoin.
Unfortunately, it doesn’t currently accept any other international options like Alipay or UnionPay.
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How To Set Up a Firewall Using FirewallD on CentOS 7

The majority of this definition is actually metadata. You will want to change the short name for the service within the tags. This is a human-readable name for your service. You should also add a description so that you have more information if you ever need to audit the service. The only configuration you need to make that actually affects the functionality of the service will likely be the port definition where you identify the port number and protocol you wish to open. This can be specified multiple times.
For our “example” service, imagine that we need to open up port 7777 for TCP and 8888 for UDP. By entering INSERT mode by pressing i , we can modify the existing data center in moldova definition with something like this:
/etc/firewalld/services/example.xml
  Example Service This is just an example service. It probably shouldn't be used on a real system.    
Press ESC , then enter :x to save and close the file.
Reload your firewall to get access to your new service:
sudo firewall-cmd --reload 
You can see that it is now among the list of available services:
firewall-cmd --get-services outputRH-Satellite-6 amanda-client amanda-k5-client bacula bacula-client bitcoin bitcoin-rpc bitcoin-testnet bitcoin-testnet-rpc ceph ceph-mon cfengine condor-collector ctdb dhcp dhcpv6 dhcpv6-client dns docker-registry dropbox-lansync elasticsearch example freeipa-ldap freeipa-ldaps freeipa-replication freeipa-trust ftp ganglia-client ganglia-master high-availability http https imap imaps ipp ipp-client ipsec iscsi-target kadmin kerberos kibana klogin kpasswd kshell ldap ldaps libvirt libvirt-tls managesieve mdns mosh mountd ms-wbt mssql mysql nfs nrpe ntp openvpn ovirt-imageio ovirt-storageconsole ovirt-vmconsole pmcd pmproxy pmwebapi pmwebapis pop3 pop3s postgresql privoxy proxy-dhcp ptp pulseaudio puppetmaster quassel radius rpc-bind rsh rsyncd samba samba-client sane sip sips smtp smtp-submission smtps snmp snmptrap spideroak-lansync squid ssh synergy syslog syslog-tls telnet tftp tftp-client tinc tor-socks transmission-client vdsm vnc-server wbem-https xmpp-bosh xmpp-client xmpp-local xmpp-server 
You can now use this service in your zones as you normally would.

Creating Your Own Zones

While the predefined zones will probably be more than enough for most users, it can be helpful to define your own zones that are more descriptive of their function server management in romania.
For instance, you might want to create a zone for your web server, called “publicweb”. However, you might want to have another zone configured for the DNS service you provide on your private network. You might want a zone called “privateDNS” for that.
When adding a zone, you must add it to the permanent firewall configuration. You can then reload to bring the configuration into your running session. For instance, we could create the two zones we discussed above by typing:
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --new-zone=publicweb 
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --new-zone=privateDNS
You can verify that these are present in your permanent configuration by typing:
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --get-zones outputblock dmz drop external home internal privateDNS public publicweb trusted work 
As stated before, these won’t be available in the current instance of the firewall yet:
firewall-cmd --get-zones outputblock dmz drop external home internal public trusted work 
Reload the firewall to bring these new zones into the active configuration:
sudo firewall-cmd --reload 
firewall-cmd --get-zones outputblock dmz drop external home internal privateDNS public publicweb trusted work
Now, you can begin assigning the appropriate services and ports to your zones. It’s usually a good idea to adjust the web hosting in moldova active instance and then transfer those changes to the permanent configuration after testing. For instance, for the “publicweb” zone, you might want to add the SSH, HTTP, and HTTPS services:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --add-service=ssh 
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --add-service=http sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --add-service=https sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --list-all outputpublicweb target: default icmp-block-inversion: no interfaces: sources: services: ssh http https ports: protocols: masquerade: no forward-ports: source-ports: icmp-blocks: rich rules:
Likewise, we can add the DNS service to our “privateDNS” zone:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=privateDNS --add-service=dns 
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=privateDNS --list-all outputprivateDNS interfaces: sources: services: dns ports: masquerade: no forward-ports: icmp-blocks: rich rules:
We could then change iaas platform in romania our interfaces over to these new zones to test them out:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --change-interface=eth0 
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=privateDNS --change-interface=eth1
At this point, you have the opportunity to test your configuration. If these values work for you, you will want to add the same rules to the permanent configuration. You can do that by re-applying the rules with the --permanent flag:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --permanent --add-service=ssh 
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --permanent --add-service=http sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --permanent --add-service=https sudo firewall-cmd --zone=privateDNS --permanent --add-service=dns
After permanently applying these your rules, you can restart your hourly kvm vps in europe network and reload your firewall service:
sudo systemctl restart network 
sudo systemctl reload firewalld
Validate that the correct zones were assigned:
firewall-cmd --get-active-zones outputprivateDNS interfaces: eth1 publicweb interfaces: eth0 
And validate that the appropriate services are available for both of the zones:
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=publicweb --list-services outputhttp https ssh sudo firewall-cmd --zone=privateDNS --list-services outputdns 
You have successfully set up your dedicated server in romania! If you want to make one of these zones the default for other interfaces, remember to configure that behavior with the --set-default-zone= parameter:
sudo firewall-cmd --set-default-zone=publicweb 

Conclusion

You should now have a windows remote desktop fairly good understanding of how to administer the firewalld service on your CentOS system for day-to-day use.
The firewalld service allows you to configure reseller kvm vps program maintainable rules and rule-sets that take into consideration your network environment. It allows you to seamlessly transition between different firewall policies through the use of zones and gives administrators the ability to abstract the port management into more friendly service definitions. Acquiring a working knowledge of this system will allow you to take advantage of the kvm virtual server flexibility and power that this tool provides.
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Express VPN Review - Why I use it daily

ExpressVPN: Ranked #1 out of 100 VPNs that we tested ExpressVPN is one of the most popular VPN services on the market, but is it really the “#1 trusted leader in VPN” as it claims to be?
We put ExpressVPN through rigorous testing and in this review we’ll tell you if it’s honestly the top VPN of 2019, and we’ll answer common questions like:
Is ExpressVPN really that fast? Is it legit and safe to use? Does ExpressVPN unblock Netflix? Does ExpressVPN allow torrenting? How much does ExpressVPN cost? But before we jump in, here’s a quick overview of ExpressVPN’s pros and cons:
Pros Cons Exceptionally fast same-country speeds Works with Netflix, BBC iPlayer & more Safe, fast & unrestricted torrenting/P2P Strong logging policy & no IP, DNS, WebRTC leaks User-friendly apps for PC, Mac, iOS, & Android Great server network across 94 countries More expensive than some rivals Fire Stick TV app needs updating Works with
Netflix, BBC iPlayer, HBO, Hulu, Amazon Prime Video, Sky, SlingTV, Torrenting, Kodi
Available on
Windows Mac Ios Android Linux Price from
$6.67/mo
That’s just a few highlights of what’s to come.
Keep reading to see if ExpressVPN is the right VPN for you, starting with how fast it is.
Speed & Reliability One of the fastest VPNs we've tested
ExpressVPN is one of the fastest VPN services we’ve tested – it’s extremely quick and responsive.
ExpressVPN is also remarkably reliable and consistent, whether you’re connecting to a local server, or one on the other side of the world. It’s speed is also very impressive in high censorship countries like China, where most other VPN services struggle to even connect.
Use the table below to see how ExpressVPN speeds fare against its top-scoring rivals in 11 locations around the world.
Select server location ExpressVPN NordVPN IPVanish DOWNLOAD AVERAGE 52.10 Mbps 69.67 Mbps 44.83 Mbps UPLOAD AVERAGE 23.84 Mbps 27.86 Mbps 27.70 Mbps PING AVERAGE 141 ms 135 ms 131 ms Here are the average speeds you can expect from ExpressVPN from a handful popular regions.
Europe Asia USA Australia DOWNLOAD AVERAGE 125 Mbps 47 Mbps 151 Mbps 129 Mbps UPLOAD AVERAGE 101 Mbps 34 Mbps 135 Mbps 113 Mbps PING AVERAGE 73 ms 3 ms 4 ms 2 ms Averages are calculated from our test results over the last 4 weeks. To read about our speed testing methodologies, please read How We Test VPN Speed.
Speed results from our physical location in London (100Mbps fibre optic connection) to a London test server.
Before using ExpressVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 95.71
UPLOAD Mbps 98.71
PING ms 3
When connected to ExpressVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 85
UPLOAD Mbps 91.22
PING ms 8
Download speed without ExpressVPN: 95.71Mbps
Download speed with ExpressVPN: 85.00Mbps
Our download speed loss when ExpressVPN is running: 11%
On top of fast download and upload speeds, ExpressVPN’s low latency and low ping times make it a good VPN for gaming, not as good as other VPN services but a strong gaming contender nonetheless.
From our location in the UK, we tested average speeds connecting out to various locations worldwide while connected to ExpressVPN:
USA: 77Mbps (download) & 40Mbps (upload) Germany: 79Mbps (download) & 66Mbps (upload) Singapore: 73Mbps (download) & 22Mbps (upload) Australia: 59Mbps (download) & 1Mbps (upload) Server Locations 3,000+ servers across 160 locations
Globe with a blue flag 94 Countries Image of a city landscape 160 Cities Image of a pink marker 3,000+ IP Addresses See all Server Locations ExpressVPN operates more than 3,000 VPN servers across the world, spread evenly over every continent (excluding Antarctica).
No matter where you’re located you should have no trouble finding an ExpressVPN server near you.
3,000 servers is one of the widest ranges of servers we’ve seen from any VPN service, and the ExpressVPN website even lists which VPN security protocols are available in each location (either country or city).
ExpressVPN provides city-level servers in a number of locations, too:
US UK Australia Brazil India Singapore Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain ExpressVPN’s 27 different city-level locations in the US and in four in Australia are some of the highest totals we’ve seen.
Streaming & Torrenting Instantly unlocks Netflix, BBC iPlayer and torrenting
ExpressVPN easily unlocks Netflix through almost all of its US-based VPN servers (apart from New York), even if it doesn’t offer servers dedicated to streaming like some of the other top-tier VPN services like CyberGhost.
ExpressVPN’s Isle of Man and Jersey servers work well with UK Netflix, while most UK servers will unlock BBC iPlayer (although customer support informed us it will only work if you’re located outside of the UK).
ExpressVPN is also a popular choice with viewers of a whole range of other big streaming services. Plenty of subscribers enjoy using ExpressVPN with:
Amazon Prime Video Hulu HBO Sling TV Sky Now TV PlayStation Vue The following ExpressVPN servers worked for unlocking Netflix:
USA (New Jersey, Washington DC, San Francisco) Canada (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) UK (Isle of Man, Jersey) Torrenting Torrenting and any type of P2P traffic is allowed on all ExpressVPN servers, resulting in less congestion and faster speeds as a bonus.
ExpressVPN registered fast speeds both downloading and uploading, which is fundamental for a good torrenting and P2P experience. ExpressVPN also works for those looking to stream via Kodi or similar media player apps.
Privacy and security-wise, ExpressVPN’s kill switch works extremely well (should your VPN connection drop at any point) and when we tested ExpressVPN for IP or DNS leaks, we found zero. What’s more, ExpressVPN doesn’t keep any activity logs. You can read more about all of this below.
Bypassing Censorship Works in China, UAE and more
ExpressVPN works in China, bypassing Chinese censorship with ease, largely thanks to the company devoting significant resources into outsmarting the censors. That is why ExpressVPN is our best VPN for China.
If you have protocol selection switched to Automatic, ExpressVPN’s proprietary obfuscation security protocols are activated, which are very effective in beating aggressive state-level censors.
These obfuscation protocols ensure that its VPN apps easily beat even the most aggressive of blocks in countries like Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran.
Platforms & Devices Works with all popular devices
Apps Windows Logo Windows Mac Logo Mac iOS Logo iOS Android Logo Android Linux Logo Linux Router Logo Router ExpressVPN supports just about any operating system or device out there – Microsoft Windows, MacOS, iOS and Android – with installation instructions given for each one.
Where ExpressVPN doesn’t have a native dedicated VPN app, you have access to a walkthrough on the ExpressVPN website to show you how to set up a workaround.
Games Consoles & Streaming Devices AppleTV Logo AppleTV Amazon Fire TV Logo Amazon Fire TV Chromecast Logo Chromecast Nintendo Logo Nintendo PlayStation Logo PlayStation Roku Logo Roku Xbox Logo Xbox ExpressVPN is one of the best VPN services for Amazon’s Fire TV Stick, although it is not our number one choice.
Why is not our top pick?
Well, ExpressVPN may have been one of the first VPN providers to roll out a Fire TV Stick app, and it works fine, but it’s grown to look out-dated and lacks some of the features that we’ve enjoyed in more recent Fire TV Stick VPN apps.
If you own a Fire TV Stick and want to use a VPN app with it, take a look at our top VPN picks for Amazon Fire TV and Fire TV Stick.
If you want to run ExpressVPN on other streaming devices or games consoles, you’ll need to install ExpressVPN at router level, or you can piggyback off of the VPN connection from another device, like your PC or Mac.
Browser Extensions Chrome Logo Chrome Firefox Logo Firefox Safari Logo Safari ExpressVPN provides full VPN browser extensions for Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari.
Most of the VPN browser add-ons we see from other VPN providers are proxies pretending to be full VPNs, but ExpressVPN’s extensions are the real deal.
You can choose your server location from within the browser extension, which is a really neat solution.
Thanks to a recent update you can now use ExpressVPN on five different devices at once, too.
Encryption & Security Leader in security, with strong extras like a VPN kill switch & obfuscation protocols
Protocol IKEv2/IPSec
L2TP/IPSec
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)
PPTP
SSTP
Encryption AES-256
Security DNS Leak Blocking
First-party DNS
IPV6 Leak Blocking
VPN Kill Switch
WebRTC Leak Blocking
Advanced features Split Tunneling
Please see our VPN Glossary if these terms confuse you and would like to learn more.
ExpressVPN is a legitimate and extremely secure VPN service, with a multitude of standards and VPN protocols in place to keep your browsing data private and secure.
If you leave the VPN protocol setting on Automatic then the ExpressVPN app will determine what is the best security protocol to use – a handy feature that’s not all that common.
AES-256 encryption is widely regarded as near-unbreakable; OpenVPN, our favorite VPN protocol, is one of many available; and ExpressVPN also has the always-essential VPN kill switch, ensuring you stay protected in the event of your connection dropping.
Split tunneling is yet another powerful feature that’s not all that common among VPN services. It allows you to protect your web traffic while keeping access to connected devices on your network, like your printer or Smart TV.
We found ExpressVPN to be fully protected from any IP or DNS leaks, too. You can count on ExpressVPN to successfully hide your real IP address.
ExpressVPN recently launched its TrustedServer feature, a proprietary technology that removes the need for local storage such as hard disks or solid state drives. Once again, ExpressVPN is leading the pack when it comes to security and privacy.
Logging Policy Close to truly no-logs and away from 14-Eyes
ExpressVPN doesn’t collect any personally identifiable activity logs. Here’s all the information collected by ExpressVPN’s VPN servers:
Dates when connected to the VPN service Choice of VPN server location Total amount of data transferred per day That’s it. ExpressVPN maintains that this is the minimum amount of information required to be collected in order to keep the performance of its servers as strong as possible.
The most important thing of all is that this data cannot be used to identify you, or what you do. All that’s possible to reveal is that you have used ExpressVPN’s service at some point. This is totally anonymous, and about as close to zero-logs as you can get.
A recent report by the Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT) questioned ExpressVPN in greater detail and concluded that its servers were both “extremely difficult to compromise” and “limited in the amount of data that could be revealed” in the event that they were.
ExpressVPN’s logging policy was put to the test in December 2017 when one of ExpressVPN’s Turkish VPN servers was seized and inspected by Turkish authorities investigating the assassination of Russian ambassador to Turkey, Andrei Karlov. The investigators could not find any customer connection logs.
Jurisdiction ExpressVPN was founded in 2009 and is operated by Express VPN International Ltd., which is based in the British Virgin Islands and far outside of the intrusive 14-eyes surveillance alliance.
That’s an excellent choice of location for a privacy-minded VPN company, as the British Virgin Islands has full sovereignty over its own data regulations.
Foreign governments can still make demands for information, but ExpressVPN makes it clear that it will never share data with them and, crucially, that it doesn’t have any personally identifiable information to share in the first place.
In case you’re still wondering, you’re safe with ExpressVPN.
Ease of Use Hassle-free setup and easy to get started
How to Install & Set Up ExpressVPN Screenshot of the ExpressVPN installation wizard This is the screen you'll see after you've downloaded your chosen software from the ExpressVPN website.
Screenshot of the ExpressVPN download success screen When the installation is complete, you'll receive a prompt to start the ExpressVPN app.
Screenshot of the activation code box in the ExpressVPN app Before you can start using the app, you'll need to enter the activation code provided in your welcome email.
Screenshot of the main screen of ExpressVPN's desktop app The main view of the ExpressVPN screen - just click connect to fire up your new VPN.
Screenshot of ExpressVPN while connected The on/off button turns green when you're connected, and clearly displays your chosen server location.
Screenshot of ExpressVPN's list of server locations Your favorite server locations display here in a separate window.
Screenshot of ExpressVPN's protocol choices in the desktop app Choose your protocol here - we really like the helpful contextual information provided
ExpressVPN is so easy to use that it’s hard to go wrong – not just with the main desktop client, but also with its many device-specific apps and browser extensions.
The ExpressVPN home screen is simply a big on/off button and a list of VPN servers, but if you want to customize things you can also find advanced settings behind a separate menu.
Even ExpressVPN’s advanced options are explained in plain and easily-understood language, so you’ll never be making changes without knowing exactly what you’re doing.
Browser Extensions
ExpressVPN’s browser extensions are available for Chrome, Firefox and Safari. They give you full protection that fully masks your web activity without you having to leave your browser window.
Customer Support Responsive and friendly live chat
24/7 Live chat support Email Online Resources ExpressVPN’s helpful 24/7 live chat means if you ever have a problem, you’ll be back up and running as quickly as possible.
ExpressVPN really is one of the most customer-focused VPN services we’ve reviewed, and the ExpressVPN support team makes sure to keep you happy before and well after you’ve become their customer.
You can also reach out to ExpressVPN’s customer support via email, with equally responsive, helpful and enthusiastic responses.
Pricing & Deals A little expensive, but well worth it
ExpressVPN Coupon ExpressVPN logo ExpressVPN
Get 3 months free with ExpressVPN's 12-month plan
TestedEnds in 2 days Get CodeED Terms ExpressVPN Pricing Plan ExpressVPN provides the same features on all its price plans, so the only decision to make is how much you want to pay upfront and how much your subscription costs you per month.
The longer you subscribe to ExpressVPN for, the cheaper the monthly cost: a single month of ExpressVPN costs $12.95 (which is more costly than other 1-month plans offered by its rivals), but there’s a 49% reduction to $6.67 for a 15-month plan, which is great value for the best VPN service around.
Monthly
US$12.95/mo
Billed $12.95 every month 6 Months
US$9.99/mo
Billed $59.95 every 6 months Save 23% 15 Months
US$6.67/mo
Billed $99.95 first 15 months and 12 months thereafter Save 49% All plans have 30-day money-back guarantee
Payment & Refund Options Credit Card PayPal Bitcoin AliPay UnionPay You’re entitled to a 30-day money-back guarantee when you first sign up to ExpressVPN. We found that they grant refunds quickly and with no questions asked, after we made a simple request to customer service.
ExpressVPN doesn’t have a true free trial in place, but take a look at our guide on how you can make the most of the 30-day refund guarantee.
There’s also a ‘Refer a Friend’ program which earns you a 30-day free ExpressVPN subscription for both you and the friend you convince to sign up – plus there’s no limit to the number of friends you can refer.
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Bitcoin Mining Profitability: How Long Does it Take to Mine One Bitcoin in 2019?

When it comes to Bitcoin (BTC) mining, the major questions on people’s minds are “how profitable is Bitcoin mining” and “how long would it take to mine one Bitcoin?” To answer these questions, we need to take an in-depth look at the current state of the Bitcoin mining industry — and how it has changed — over the last several years.
Bitcoin mining is, essentially, the process of participating in Bitcoin’s underlying security mechanism — known as proof-of-work — to help secure the Bitcoin blockchain. In return, participants receive compensation in bitcoins (BTC).
When you participate in Bitcoin mining, you are essentially searching for blocks by crunching complex cryptographic challenges using your mining hardware. Once a block is discovered, new transactions are recorded and verified within the block and the block discoverer receives the block rewards — currently set at 12.5 BTC — as well as the transactions fees for the transactions included within the block.
Once the maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoins has been mined, no further Bitcoins will ever come into existence. This property makes Bitcoin deflationary, something which many argue will inevitably increase the value of each Bitcoin unit as it becomes more scarce due to increased global adoption.
The limited supply of Bitcoin is also one of the reasons why Bitcoin mining has become so popular. In previous years, Bitcoin mining proved to be a lucrative investment option — netting miners with several fold returns on their investment with relatively little effort.
bitcoin mining hardware
Mining Hardware
The mining hardware you choose will mostly depend on your circumstances — in terms of budget, location and electricity costs. Since the amount of hashing power you can dedicate to the mining process is directly correlated with how much Bitcoin you will mine per day, it is wise to ensure your hardware is still competitive in 2019.
Bitcoin uses SHA256 as its mining algorithm. Because of this, only hardware compatible with this algorithm can be used to mine Bitcoin. Although it is technically possible to mine Bitcoin on your current computer hardware — using your CPU or GPU — this will almost certainly not generate a positive return on your investment and you may end up damaging your device.
The most cost-effective way to mine Bitcoin in 2019 is using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) mining hardware. These are specially-designed machines that offer much higher performance per watt than typical computers and have been an absolutely essential purchase for anybody looking to get into Bitcoin mining since the first Avalon ASICs were shipped in 2013.
When it comes to selecting Bitcoin mining hardware, there are several main parameters to consider — though the importance of each of these may vary based on personal circumstances and budget.
Performance per Watt
When it comes to Bitcoin mining, performance per watt is a measure of how many gigahashes per watt a machine is capable of and is, hence, a simple measure of its efficiency. Since electricity costs are likely to be one of the largest expenses when mining Bitcoin, it is usually a good idea to ensure that you are getting good performance per watt out of your hardware.
Ideally, your mining hardware would be highly efficient, allowing it to mine Bitcoin with lower energy requirements — though this will need to be balanced with acquisition costs, as often the most efficient hardware is also the most expensive. This means it may take longer to see a return on investment.
In countries with cheap electricity, performance per watt is often less of a concern than acquisition costs and price-performance ratio. In most countries, operating outdated mining hardware is typically cost prohibitive, as energy costs outweigh the income generated by the mining equipment.
However, this may not be the case for those operating in countries with extremely cheap electricity — such as Kuwait and Venezuela — as even older equipment can still be profitable. Similarly, miners with a free energy surplus, such as from wind or solar electric generators, can benefit from the minimal gains offered by still running outdated hardware.
Longevity
The lifetime of mining hardware also plays a critical role in determining how profitable your mining venture will be. It’s always a good idea to do whatever possible to ensure it runs as smoothly as possible.
Since mining equipment tends to run at a full (or almost full) load for extended periods, they also tend to break down and fail more frequently than most electronics — which can seriously damage your profitability. Equipment failure is even more common when purchasing second-hand equipment. Since warranty claims are often challenging, it can often take a long time to receive a warranty replacement.
Price-Performance Ratio
In many cases, one of the major criteria used to select mining hardware is the price-performance ratio — a measure of how much performance a machine outputs per unit price. In the case of cryptocurrency mining hardware, this is commonly expressed as gigahashes per dollar or GH/$.
Under ideal circumstances, the mining hardware would have a high price-performance ratio, ensuring you get a lot of bang for your buck. However, this must also be considered in combination with the acquisition costs and the expected lifetime of the machine — since the absolute most powerful machines are not always the cheapest or the most energy efficient.
Acquisition Costs
Acquisition costs are almost always the biggest barrier to entry for most Bitcoin miners since most top-end mining hardware costs several thousand dollars. This problem is further compounded by the fact that many hardware manufacturers offer discounts for bulk purchases, allowing those with deeper pockets to achieve a better price-performance ratio.
Acquisition costs include all the costs involved in purchasing any mining equipment, including hardware costs, shipping costs, import duties, and any further costs. For example, many ASIC miners do not include a power supply — which can be another considerable expense, since the 1,000W+ power supplies usually required tend to cost several hundred dollars alone.
Ensuring your equipment runs smoothly can also add in additional costs, such as cooling and maintenance expenses. In addition, some miners may want to invest in uninterruptible power supplies to ensure their hardware keeps running — even if the power fails temporarily.
asic mining
Current Generation Hardware
One of the most recent additions to the Bitcoin mining hardware market is the Ebang Ebit E11++, which was released in October 2018. Using a 10nm fabrication process for its processors, the Ebit E11++ is able to achieve one of the highest hash rates on the market at 44TH/s.
In terms of efficiency, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is arguably the best on the market, offering 44TH/s of hash rate while drawing just 1,980W of power, offering 22.2GH/W performance. However, as of writing, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is out of stock until March 31, 2019 — while its price of $2,024 (excluding shipping) may make it prohibitively expensive for those first getting involved with Bitcoin mining.
Another popular choice is the ASICminer 8 Nano, a machine released in October 2018 that offers 44TH/s for $3,900 excluding shipping. The ASICminer 8 Nano draws 2,100W of power, giving it an efficiency of almost 21GH/W — slightly lower than the Ebit E11++ while costing almost double the price. However, unlike the E11++, the 8 Nano is actually in stock and available to purchase.
ASICminer also offers the 8 Nano Pro, a machine launched in mid-2018 that offers 80 TH/s of hash rate for $9,500 (excluding shipping). However, unlike the Ebit E11++ and 8 Nano, the minimum order quantity for the 8 Nano Pro is curiously set at five, meaning you will need to lay out a minimum of $47,500 in order to actually get your hands on one (or five).
While the 8 Nano Pro doesn’t offer the same performance per watt as the Ebit E11+ or AICMiner 8 Nano, it is one of the quieter miners on this list, making it more suitable for a home or office environment. That being said, the ASICminer 8 Nano Pro is easily the most expensive miner per TH on this list — costing a whopping $118.75/TH, compared to the $46/TH offered by the E11++ and $88.64 offered by the 8 Nano.
The latest hardware on this list is the Innosilicon T3 43T, which is currently available for pre-order at $2,279, and estimated to ship in March 2019. Offering 43TH/s of performance at 2,100W, the T3 43T comes in at an efficiency of 20.4GH/W, which is around 10 percent less energy efficient than the Ebit E11++.
The T3 43T also has a minimum order quantity of three units, making the minimum acquisition cost $6837 + shipping for preorders. All in all, the T3 43T is more costly and less efficient than the E11++ but may arrive slightly earlier since Ebang will not ship the E11++ units until at least end March 29, 2019.
Finally, this list would not be complete without including Bitmain’s latest offering, the Antminer S15-28TH/s, which — as its name suggests — offers 28TH/s of hash power while drawing just under 1600W at the wall. The Antminer S15 is one of the only SHA256 miners to use 7nm processors, making it somewhat smaller than some of the other devices on this list.
Like most pieces of top-end Bitcoin mining hardware, the Antminer S15 27TH/s model is currently sold out, with current orders not shipping until mid-February 2019. However, the S15 is offered at a significantly lower price than many of its competitors at just $1020 (excluding shipping), with no minimum quantity restriction. At these rates, the Antminer comes in at just $37.78/TH — though its energy efficiency is a much less impressive 17.5GH/W.
Mining Hardware Mining Hardware Comparison
Performance (GH/W) Price Performance Ratio ($/TH)
Ebang Ebit E11++ 22.2GH/W $46/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano 21GH/W $88.64/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano Pro 19GH/W $118.75/TH
Innosilicon T3 43T 20.4GH/W $53/TH
Antminer S15-28TH/s 17.5GH/W $37.78/TH
How To Select a Good Mining Pool
Mining pools are platforms that allow miners to pool their resources together to achieve a higher collective hash rate — which, in turn, allows the collective to mine more blocks than they would be able to achieve alone.
Typically, these mining pools will distribute block rewards to contributing miners based on the proportion of the hash rate they supply. If a pool contributing a total of 20 TH/s of hash rate successfully mines the next block, a user responsible for 10 percent of this hash rate will receive 10 percent of the 12.5 BTC reward.
Pools essentially allow smaller miners to compete with large private mining organizations by ensuring that the collective hash rate is high enough to successfully mine blocks on regular basis. Without operating through a mining pool, many miners would be unlikely to discover any blocks at all — due to only contributing a tiny fraction of the overall Bitcoin hash rate.
While it is quite possible to be successful mining without a pool, this typically requires an extremely large mining operation and is usually not recommended — unless you have enough hash rate to mine blocks on a regular basis.
Although it is technically possible to discover blocks mining solo and keep the entire 12.5 BTC reward for yourself, the odds of this actually occurring are practically zero — making pool collaboration practically the only way to compete in 2019 and beyond.
Selecting the best pool for you can be a challenging job since the vast majority of pools are quite similar and offer similar features and comparable fees. Because of this, we have broken down the qualities you should be looking for in a new pool into four categories; reputation, hash rate, pool fees, and usability/features:
Reputation
The reputation of a pool is one of the most important factors in selecting the pool that is best for you. Well-reputed pools will tend to be much larger than newer or less well-established pools since few pools with a poor reputation can stand the test of time.
Well-reputed pools also tend to be more transparent about their operation, many of which provide tools to ensure that each user is getting the correct reward based on the hash rate contributed. By using only pools with a great reputation, you also ensure your hash rate is not being used for nefarious purposes — such as powering a 51 percent attack.
When comparing a list of pools that appear suitable for you, it is a wise move to read their user reviews before making your choice — ensuring you don’t end up mining at a pool that steals your hard-fought earnings.
Hash Rate
When it comes to mining Bitcoin, the probability of discovering the next block is directly related to the amount of hashing power you contribute to the network. Because of this, one of the major features you should be considering when selecting your pool is its total hash rate — which is often closely related to the proportion of new blocks mined by the pool
Since the total hash rate of a pool is directly related to how quickly it discovers new blocks, this means the largest pools tend to discover a relative majority of blocks — leading to more regular rewards. However, the very largest pools also tend the have higher fees but often make up for this with sheer success and additional features.
Sometimes, some of the largest pools have a minimum hash rate requirement ù leaving some of the smaller miners left out of the loop. Although smaller pools typically have more relaxed requirements with reduced performance thresholds, these pools may be only slightly more profitable than mining solo.
Pool Fees
When choosing a suitable pool, typically one of the major considerations is its fees. Typically, most pools will charge a small fee that is deducted from your earnings and is usually around 1-2 percent — but sometimes slightly lower or higher.
There are also pools that offer 0 percent fees. However, these are often much smaller than the major pools and tend to make their money in a different way — such as through monthly subscriptions or donations.
Ideally, you will choose the pool that offers the best balance of fees to other features. Usually, the pool with the absolute lowest fees is not the best choice. Additionally, pools with the lowest fees often have the highest withdrawal minimums — making pool hopping uneconomical for most.
Usability and Features
When first starting out with Bitcoin mining, learning how to set up a pool and navigating through the settings can be a challenge. Because of this, several pools target their services to newer users by offering a simple to navigate user interface and providing detailed learning resources and prompt customer support.
However, for more experienced miners, simple pools don’t tend to offer a variety of features needed to maximize profitability. For example, although many mining pools focus their entire hash rate towards mining a single cryptocurrency, some are large enough to offer additional options — allowing users to mine other SHA256 coins such as Bitcoin Cash (BCH) or Fantom if they choose.
These pools are technically more challenging to use and mostly designed for those familiar with mining, happy to hop from coin to coin mining whichever is most profitable at the time. There are even some exchanges that automatically direct their combined hash rate at the most profitable cryptocurrency — taking the guesswork out of the equation.
bitcoin mining pool
Best Mining Pools for 2019
The Bitcoin mining pool industry has a large number of players, but the vast majority of the Bitcoin hash rate is concentrated within just a few pools. Currently, there are dozens of suitable pools to choose from — but we have selected just a few of the best to help get you started on your journey.
Slushpool was the first Bitcoin mining pool released, being launched way back in 2010 under the name “Bitcoin Pooled Mining Server.” Since then, Slushpool has grown into one of the most popular pools around — currently accounting for just under 10 percent of the total Bitcoin hash rate.
Although Slushpool isn’t one of the very largest pools, it does offer a newbie-friendly interface alongside more advanced features for those that need them. The pool has moderately high fees of 2 percent but offers servers in several countries — including the U.S., Europe, China, and Japan — giving it a good balance of fees to features.
BTC.com is another potential candidate for your pool and currently stands as the largest public Bitcoin mining pool. It is responsible for mining around 17 percent of new blocks. Being the largest public mining pool provides users with a sense of security, ensuring blocks are mined regularly and a stable income is made.
Image courtesy of Blockchain.info.
BTC.com is owned by Bitmain, a company that manufacturers mining hardware, and charges a 1.5 percent fees — placing it squarely in the middle-tier in terms of fees. Unlike other platforms, BTC.com uses its own payment structure known as FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), which means miners also receive a share of the transaction fees included within mined blocks — making it slightly more profitable than standard payment per share (PPS) pools.
Another great option is Antpool, a mining pool that supports mining services for 10 different cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Litecoin (LTC) and Ethereum (ETH). AntPool frequently trades places with BTC.com as the largest Bitcoin mining pool. However, as of this writing, it occupies the title of the third-largest public mining pool.
What sets Antpool apart from other pools is the ability to choose your own fee system — including PPS, PPS+, and PPLNS. If you choose PPLNS, using Antpool is free but you will not receive any transaction fees from any blocks mined. Antpool also offers regular payouts and has a low minimum payout of just 0.001 BTC, making it suitable for smaller miners.
Last on the list of the best Bitcoin mining pools in 2019 is the Bitcoin.com mining pool. Although this is one of the smaller pools available, the Bitcoin.com pool has some redeeming features that make it worth a look. It offers mining contracts, allowing you to test out Bitcoin mining before investing in mining equipment of your own. According to Bitcoin.com, they are the highest paying Pay Per Share (PPS) pool in the world, offering up to 98 percent block rewards as well as automatic switching between BTC and BCH mining to optimize profitability.

Electricity Costs
While your mining hardware is most important when it comes to how much BTC you can earn when mining, your electricity costs are usually the largest additional expense. With electricity costs often varying dramatically between countries, ensuring you are on the best cost-per-KWh plan available will help to keep costs down when mining.
Most commonly, large mining operations will be set up in countries where electricity costs are the lowest — such as Iceland, India, and Ukraine. Since China has one of the lowest energy costs in the world, it was previously the epicenter of Bitcoin mining. However, since the government began cracking down on cryptocurrencies, it has largely fallen out of favor with miners.
Technically, Venezuela is one of the cheapest countries in the world in terms of electricity, with the government heavily subsidizing these energy costs — while Bitcoin offers an escape from the hyperinflation suffered by the Venezuelan bolivar. Despite this, importing mining hardware into the country is a costly endeavor, making it impractical for many people.
Finding ways to lower your electricity costs is one of the best ways to improve your mining profitability. This can include investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, or wind — which can yield increased profitability over the long term.
if you are looking to buy bitcoin mining equipment here is some links:

Model Antminer S17 Pro (56Th) from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 56Th/s for a power consumption of 2385W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s17-pro-56th-copy/?wpam_id=17
Model Antminer S9K from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 14Th/s for a power consumption of 1323W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s9k-14-th-s/?wpam_id=17
Model T2T 30Tfrom Innosilicon mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 30Th/s for a power consumption of 2200W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/innosilicon-t2t-30t/?wpam_id=17
mining wholesale website:
https://miningwholesale.eu/?wpam_id=17
submitted by mohamadk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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